Inventi Impact - Nanotech & Bionic Engg

Patent Watch

  • System and method for identifying and evaluating nanomaterial-related risk

    A system, method, and processor-readable medium are provided for quantitatively evaluating risk associated with nanotechnology. An insurance company computing system obtains nanomaterial-related data from a variety of sources, including nanomaterial sensors such as differential mobility analyzers located on-site at an insured facility. The insurance computing system uses the obtained data and a computerized model to compute a risk score that is used in evaluating the insurability of the facility or the operating entity. An insurance policy or modifications to an existing insurance premium are subsequently produced based on the computed risk score.

  • Microemulsion (nanotechnology) fuel additive composition

    A micro-emulsion forming (nanotechnology) fuel additive composition is disclosed which improves the fuel economy and reduces the exhaust emissions of internal combustion machines when used at a cost effective dose level of about 20 to 500 ppm in the fuel.

  • Real time oil reservoir evaluation using nanotechnology

    A method and system for evaluating status and response of a mineral-producing field (e.g., oil and/or gas) by monitoring selected chemical and physical properties in or adjacent to a wellsite headspace. Nanotechnology sensors and other sensors are provided for one or more underground (fluid) mineral-producing wellsites to determine presence/absence of each of two or more target molecules in the fluid, relative humidity, temperature and/or fluid pressure adjacent to the wellsite and flow direction and flow velocity for the fluid. A nanosensor measures an electrical parameter value and estimates a corresponding environmental parameter value, such as water content or hydrocarbon content. The system is small enough to be located down-hole in each mineralproducing horizon for the wellsite.

  • Fractal memory and computational methods and systems based on nanotechnology

    Fractal memory systems and methods include a fractal tree that includes one or more fractal trunks. One or more object circuits are associated with the fractal tree. The object circuit(s) can be configured from a plurality of nanotechnology-based components to provide a scalable distributed computing architecture for fractal computing. Additionally, a plurality of router circuits is associated with the fractal tree, wherein one or more fractal addresses output from a recognition circuit can be provided at a fractal trunk by the router circuits.

  • Nanopatterned surfaces and related methods for selective adhesion, sensing and separation

    A surface comprises a surface member and a plurality of components thereon. Such heterogenous surface compositions and configurations, related systems and methods for sensing particle or analyte interaction therewith can selectively and/or differentially interact with a range of particles/analytes, in lieu of specific molecular sensor-analyte interactions for each particle.

  • Interferometric analysis method for the manufacture of nano-scale devices

    The present invention features a method to determine relative spatial parameters between two coordinate systems, which may be a mold and a region of a substrate in which mold is employed to generate a pattern. The method includes sensing relative alignment between the two coordinate systems at multiple points and determines relative spatial parameters therebetween. The relative spatial parameters include a relative area and a relative shape.

  • Materials and methods for creating imaging layers

    The present invention provides patterned features of dimensions of less than 50 nm on a substrate. According to various embodiments, the features may be "Manhattan" style structures, have high aspect ratios, and/or have atomically smooth surfaces. The patterned features are made from polymer brushes grafted to a substrate. In some embodiments, the dimensions of the features may be determined by adjusting the grafting density and/or the molecular weight of the brushes. Once the brushes are patterned, the features can be shaped and reshaped with thermal or solvent treatments to achieve the desired profiles. The chemical nature of the polymer brush is thus independent of the patterning process, which allows for optimization of the polymer brush used for specific applications. Applications include masks for pattern transfer techniques such as reactive ion etching.

  • Nanobioprocessor for protein and cell therapy

    A nanobioprocessor for protein and cell therapy comprises a selectively coated quantum dot having selected band gap energies, characteristic absorption, emission spectra and outer coatings for therapy and diagnostic purposes in biophotonics and nanomedicine, and an electromagnetic radiation and detector source configured to remotely heat and/or selectively excite the quantum dot to associate with target specific misfolded or anomalous proteins, diseased cells and tissue.

  • Nanocomposites of dendritic polymers

    In the present invention, an inorganic reactant is, or reactants are, localized with respect to a dendritic polymer by physical constraint within or by a non-covalent conjugation to the dendritic polymer. The localized inorganic reactant or reactants is/are subsequently transformed to form a reaction product which is immobilized with respect to the dendritic polymer. This immobilization occurs on a nanoscopic scale as a consequence of the combined effects of structural, chemical and physical changes without having covalent bonds between the product(s) and the dendritic container and results in new compositions of matter called dendritic nanocomposites. The resulting nanocomposite material can be used to produce revolutionary products such as water soluble elemental metals, with specific applications including magnetic resonance imaging, catalytic, magnetic, optical, photolytic and electroactive applications.

  • Nano-engineered material architectures: ultra-tough hybrid nanocomposite system

    A hybrid nanocomposite architecture is presented. The architecture includes a first composite ply oriented at a first orientation. The architecture also includes a carbon nanotube (CNT) film layer including a plurality of CNT pellets disposed therein, each of the CNT bundles including a plurality of CNTs extending from the bottom surface of the CNT film layer to a top surface of the CNT film layer, the CNT film layer disposed in an abutting relationship with the first composite ply. The architecture further includes a second composite ply which may be oriented at a second orientation, the second composite ply disposed in an abutting relationship with the CNT film layer, and wherein the CNTs of the CNT film layer act as a penetrating bridge across an interface between the first composite ply and the second composite ply.

  • Bulk separation of carbon nanotubes by bandgap

    The present invention is directed to methods of separating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by their electronic type (e.g., metallic, semi-metallic, and semiconducting). Perhaps most generally, in some embodiments, the present invention is directed to methods of separating CNTs by bandgap, wherein such separation is effected by interacting the CNTs with a surface such that the surface interacts differentially with the CNTs on the basis of their bandgap, or lack thereof. In some embodiments, such methods can allow for such separations to be carried out in bulk quantities.

  • Smart card detectors

    A smartcard or other media detects the presence of chemical, biological, radiation, and/or explosive (CBRE) compounds or other items of interest on individuals handling the smartcard or other media. The exposure is stored such that, when the card is presented to a reader, the detection data is transmitted to the reader for appropriate processing by the system. In one embodiment, this invention provides a detection methodology which captures the fact that the holder of the detection device has been in contact with an item of interest without external power. The detector card is then able to alert appropriate authorities of that exposure when the device is presented to a reader in the normal course of the holder's business.

  • System, methods and apparatuses for integrated circuits for nanorobotics

    The invention describes apparatuses for nano-scale integrated circuits applied to nanorobotics. Using EDA techniques, the system develops fully functional nano ICs, including ASICs and microprocessors. Three dimensional nano ICs are disclosed for increased efficiency in nanorobotic apparatuses. Nano-scale FPGAs are disclosed. The nano-scale semiconductors have applications to nano-scale and micro-scale robots.

  • Carbon nanotube binding peptides

    Peptides have been generated that have binding affinity to carbon nanostructures and particularly carbon nanotubes. Peptides of or the invention are generally about twelve amino acids in length. Methods for generating carbon nanotube binding peptides are also disclosed.

  • Method of fabricating electronic device using nanowires

    A method of fabricating an electronic device using nanowires, minimizing the number of E-beam processing steps and thus improving a yield, includes the steps of: forming electrodes on a substrate; depositing a plurality of nanowires on the substrate including the electrodes; capturing an image of the substrate including the nanowires and the electrodes; drawing virtual connection lines for connecting the nanowires with the electrodes on the image using an electrode pattern simulated through a computer program, after capturing the image; coating an E-beam photoresist on the substrate; removing the photoresist from regions corresponding to the virtual connection lines and the electrode pattern using E-beam lithography; depositing a metal layer on the substrate after removing the photoresist from the regions of the virtual connection lines; and removing remaining photoresist from the substrate using a lift-off process.

  • Method of fabricating a patterned nanoscopic article

    Nanowire articles and methods of making the same are disclosed. A conductive article includes a plurality of inter-contacting nanowire segments that define a plurality of conductive pathways along the article. The nanowire segments may be semiconducting nanowires, metallic nanowires, nanotubes, single walled carbon nanotubes, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, or nanowires entangled with nanotubes. The various segments may have different lengths and may include segments having a length shorter than the length of the article. A strapping material may be positioned to contact a portion of the plurality of nanowire segments. The strapping material may be patterned to create the shape of a frame with an opening that exposes an area of the nanowire fabric. Such a strapping layer may also be used for making electrical contact to the nanowire fabric especially for electrical stitching to lower the overall resistance of the fabric.

  • Controlled alignment of catalytically grown nanostructures in a large-scale synthesis process

    Systems and methods are described for controlled alignment of catalytically grown nanostructures in a large-scale synthesis process. A method includes: generating an electric field proximate an edge of a protruding section of an electrode, the electric field defining a vector; and forming an elongated nanostructure located at a position on a surface of a substrate, the position on the surface of the substrate proximate the edge of the protruding section of the electrode, at least one tangent to the elongated nanostructure i) substantially parallel to the vector defined by the electric field and ii) substantially non-parallel to a normal defined by the surface of the substrate.

  • Nanomachining method and apparatus

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for nanomachining operations. Excitation energy settings are provided to minimize machine induced scan cutting. Cut operations can be operated in a feedback mode to provide controlled cutting operations. Measurement and sweep techniques to facilitate nanomachining operations are disclosed.

  • Multiphasic nano-components comprising colorants

    Multiphasic colorant nano-components (MPCs) having at least two phases and at least one colorant are provided. In certain aspects, the at least two phases are optically or visually distinct from one another. The MPCs can be used in various methods in various applications, such as visual, optical, and/or electronic displays, including in paints, inks, coatings, plastics, textiles, electronic display devices, pixels, or electronic paper. The MPCs are formed by methods of electrified jetting of polymers.

  • Method and apparatus for molecular analysis using nanoelectronic circuits

    Devices and methods for detecting the constituent parts of biological polymers are disclosed. A molecular analysis device comprises a molecule sensor and a molecule guide. The molecule sensor comprises a single electron transistor including a first terminal, a second terminal, and a nanogap or at least one quantum dot positioned between the first terminal and the second terminal. A nitrogenous material disposed on the at least one quantum dot is configured for an interaction with an identifiable configuration of a molecule. The molecule sensor develops an electronic effect responsive to the interaction. The molecule guide is configured for guiding at least a portion of the molecule substantially near the molecule sensor to enable the interaction.

  • Composite material composed of nanoparticles of transition metal and magnetic ferric oxide, a methode of preparing the same, and uses of the same

    A composite material composed of nanoparticles of transition metal(s) and magnetic ferric oxide, a method of preparing the same, and uses of the same are provided. The composite material is substantially composed of nanoparticles of transition metal(s) or alloy thereof and nanoparticles of magnetic ferric oxide, the size of nanoparticles of transition metal(s) or alloy thereof is in the range of 0.7 to 5 nm, the size of nanoparticles of magnetic ferric oxide is in the range of 5 to 50 nm, and the amount of transition metal(s) or alloy thereof is in the range of 0.1 to 30 wt %, based on the total weight of composite material, the magnetic ferric oxide is gamma-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, complex obtained from gamma-Fe2O3 by partial reduction, or complex obtained from Fe3O4 by partial reduction. The composite material has a high reactivity and an extreme selectivity for industrial reaction of hydrogenating halogeno-nitro-aromaticics to obtain halogeno-arylamine, and has important industrial applicability because the problem such as hydrogenolysis-dehalogenation during preparing halogeno arylamine by hydrogenating halogeno-nitro-aromatics is fully resolved by using the composite materials.

  • Method for realizing an electric linkage in a semiconductor electronic device between a nanometric circuit architecture and standard electronic components

    A method for realizes electric connections in a semiconductor electronic device between a nanometric circuit architecture and standard electronic components. The method includes: providing a nanometric circuit architecture comprising a succession of conductive nanowires substantially parallel to each other and extended along a direction x; realizing, above the succession, an insulating layer; opening, in the insulating layer, a window of nanometric width b extended along a direction inclined by an angle .alpha. with respect to the direction x to substantially cross the whole succession of nanowires, with exposure of a succession of exposed portions of the nanowires, one for each nanowire; realizing, above the insulating layer, a plurality of conductive dies extended along a direction y substantially orthogonal to the direction x and addressed towards the standard electronic components, each of such dies overlapping said window onto a respective exposed portion of a nanowire with obtainment of a plurality of contacts realizing said electric connections.

  • Biologically Enhanced Irrigants

    Compositions, systems and methods utilizing engineered surgical irrigants providing delivery of components with therapeutic or other secondary benefits. Engineered irrigants provide targeted delivery of desired agents, including agents for propulsion of nano-devices, agents including molecular probes, gene expression agents, magnetically orientable agents, agents for discrete tissue temperature detection and tissue regeneration agents.

  • Nano-Scale Coatings and Related Methods Suitable for In-Vivo Use

    A nano-scale device and method of manufacturing and use. The nano-scale device may be used in-vivo and may comprise a fluid path with an inlet microchannel, an outlet microchannel, and a nanochannel. The fluid path comprises bio-robust material. In certain embodiments, the bio-robust material may be coated over a material that is not bio-robust.


    Provided are novel multidimensional electrode structures containing high capacity active materials for use in rechargeable electrochemical cells. These structures include main support structures and multiple nanowires attached to the support structures and extending into different directions away from these supports. The active material may be deposited as a layer (uniform or non-uniform) surrounding the nanowires and, in certain embodiments, the main supports and even substrate. The active material layer may be sufficiently thin to prevent pulverization of the layer at given operating conditions. Interconnections between the electrode structures and/or substrate may be provided by overlaps formed during deposition of the active layer. Silicide-based nano wires structures may be formed on the main supports in a fluidized bed reactor by suspending the metal-containing main supports in a silicon-containing process gas. A layer of silicon may be then deposited over these silicide nanowires.


    The invention relates generally to carbon nano-tube composites and particularly to carbon nano-tube compositions for electrochemical energy storage devices and a method for making the same.

  • Multi-Functional Nano-Device

    A universal drug delivery platform for monoclonal antibody-based therapeutics is described. This universal platform resolves the problems of immunogenic response associated with the present monoclonal antibody based therapeutics by providing a multifunctional nano-device which comprises a well defined core/shell nano-structure that can function as a drug delivery platform linked to a monoclonal antibody through a single linking group.


    A label-free multiplexed sensing platform is based on light interaction with aperiodic photonic structures with an advantage of a broadband operation. Multiple-scattering-induced "fingerprinting" colorimetric signatures can be used as a transduction mechanism. Aperiodic sensing platforms can operate in the infrared to provide an overlap with spectral fingerprints of biological molecules. Miniaturized optical biosensors may be based on engineered colorimetric scattering signatures (structural color), sharp spectral features, non-uniform angular distributions of scattered light, and broadband manipulation of the local density of states in nano-textured scattering surfaces with deterministic aperiodic order. The biosensors can be fabricated in semiconductor, metal, low- and high-index dielectric platforms using standard nanofabrication techniques such as electron-beam lithography, ion-beam milling, etc, and can be replicated over large areas by standard nano-imprint lithography.


    In the liquid crystal display device in which a guest-host liquid crystal layer is provided between a first substrate having a reflective film which is a pixel electrode layer (also referred to as a first electrode layer) and a second substrate having a common electrode layer (also referred to as a second electrode layer), the reflective film which is a pixel electrode layer is projected into the liquid crystal layer, and a micron-sized first unevenness and a nano-sized second unevenness on the first unevenness are provided.


    A plasmonic optical spectrum filtering device is provided that filters electromagnetic waves by optical resonance, for example, by selective conversion between the free-space waves and spatially confined modes in plasmonic nano-resonators. Frequency-selective transmission and reflection spectra are engineered and can be used as spectrum filters for display and imaging applications. A thin film stack color filter is further disclosed, which can be designed to either function as a transmission color filter with efficiency twice that of conventional colorant based color filter; or as a reflective color filter for display devices (e.g., used in an energy harvesting reflective display). In other variations, a novel reflective colored display is viewable under direct sunlight, and can simultaneously harvest both incident light and generate electrical power. Methods of making such plasmonic optical spectrum filtering devices are also provided.

  • Nanofluidic channel with embedded transverse nanoelectrodes and method of fabricating for same

    A method for forming a nanofluidic channel measuring system is disclosed. The method includes forming a first trench in a substrate, forming a second trench in the substrate, the first trench and the second trench are separated by a first width, providing a first conductor pad at a first location, providing a second conductor pad at a second location, forming a first nano-wire for coupling the first conductor pad with the second conductor pad, and forming a nano-channel through the first nano-wire, the nano-channel also coupling the first trench and the second trench, the nano-channel configured to sever the first nano-wire. A nanofluidic channel measuring system is also disclosed.

  • Flame Retardant and Smoke Suppressant Composite High Performance Support-Separators and Conduit Tubes

    The present invention includes a high performance communications cable exhibiting reduced cross-talk between transmission media with one or more core support-separators having various shaped profiles defining a clearance that maintains spacing between transmission media. The core is formed of a conductive or insulative material to further reduce cross-talk and improve other electrical properties in addition to reducing flame and smoke spread. The cable and separators are comprised of polymer blends that include olefin and/or fluoropolymer and/or chlorofluoropolymer based resins with and without inorganic additives including nano-clay composites. The core support-separators have both a central region and a plurality of shaped sections that extend outward from the central region and are solid, or partially solid, foamed, or foamed with a solid skin surface. In addition, the invention includes the incorporation of hollow ducts used to provide a pathway for conductor media before, during, or after installation of the cable.


    Techniques are generally described for low average power communications that can be used for communications between one or more bionic implants and/or one or more control units. Bionic implants and/or control units can be adapted to provide stimulus control and/or sensory or other feedback back from the bionic implants. An example system may include implant devices configured to exchange brief messages between other devices. Some examples may rely on coarse message timing that can be derived from a quartz tuning fork type of resonator. Carrier frequency control can be derived from an on-chip MEMS resonator adapted for high frequency use. An electrical stimulation power supply in each implant can be configured for use in nerve/muscle excitation and/or as a polarizing voltage source for the MEMS resonator. Various compensation mechanisms are described that can be used to compensate for the imprecise and/or temperature dependent frequency in the MEMS resonator.


    A bionic catalyst for hydrolyzing cellulose and hemicellulose and its preparation method. The catalyst comprises double acid radical catalytic portions and cellulose-linking portions, and can be used under room temperature and high temperature. The catalyst can hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose simultaneously, while not decompose glucose and xylose, and may be recycled efficiently. The catalyst can be combined with the process in the prior art to produce liquid fuel.


    A system and method are disclosed for the precision fabrication of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS), Microsytems, Nanosystems, Photonics, 3-D integration, heterogeneous integration, and Nanotechology devices and structures. The disclosed system and method can also be used in any fabrication technology to increase the precision and accuracy of the devices and structures being made compared to conventional means of implementation. A platform holds and moves a substrate to be machined during machining and a plurality of lasers and/or ion beams are provided that are capable of achieving predetermined levels of machining resolution and precision and machining rates for a predetermined application. The plurality of lasers and/or ion beams comprises a plurality of the same type of laser and/or ion beam. Alternatively, a close-loop control system can be used with one laser or ion beam that is controlled and operated by the close-loop control system so as to achieve the predetermined levels of machining resolution and precision and machining rates for the predetermined application.


    A light emitting diode (LED) structure includes a plurality of devices arranged side by side on a support layer. Each device includes a first conductivity type semiconductor nanowire core and an enclosing second conductivity type semiconductor shell for forming a pn or pin junction that in operation provides an active region for light generation. A first electrode layer extends over the plurality of devices and is in electrical contact with at least a top portion of the devices to connect to the shell. The first electrode layer is at least partly air-bridged between the devices.


    A nanowire array is described herein. The nanowire array comprises a substrate and a plurality of nanowires extending essentially vertically from the substrate; wherein: each of the nanowires has uniform chemical along its entire length; a refractive index of the nanowires is at least two times of a refractive index of a cladding of the nanowires. This nanowire array is useful as a photodetector, a submicron color filter, a static color display or a dynamic color display.


    A method for replicate a pattern from a pre-patterned surface to a final substrate with in parallel approach lithography, the pre-patterned surface comprises a transparent substrate having a pre-patterned suitable metal; the method comprising the steps of: covering the final substrate with a chemical composition (resist) that is sensitive to Plasmon emitted light or waves; bringing the pre-patterned surface and the final substrate together to a proximity distance in the nanometer range, preferably 0 to 30 nm or more preferably 0 to 10 nm from the surface; illuminating the pre-patterned surface with plasmonic emitted light or waves, and exposing the final substrate to the plasmonic emitted light or waves to make a replica from the said pre-patterned surface.

  • Nano-tube thermal interface structure

    A semiconductor structure having: an electrically and thermally conductive layer disposed on one surface of the semiconductor structure; an electrically and thermally conductive heat sink; a electrically and thermally conductive carrier layer; a plurality of electrically and thermally nano-tubes, a first portion of the plurality of nano-tubes having proximal ends disposed on a first surface of the carrier layer and a second portion of the plurality of nano-tubes having proximal ends disposed on an opposite surface of the carrier layer; and a plurality of electrically and thermally conductive heat conductive tips disposed on distal ends of the plurality of nano-tubes, the plurality of heat conductive tips on the first portion of the plurality of nano-tubes being attached to the conductive layer, the plurality of heat conductive tips on the second portion of the plurality of nano-tubes being attached to the heat sink.

  • Methods of making titania nanostructures

    Electrochemical methods for making titanium oxide (TiO.sub.2) nanostructures are described. The morphology of the nanostructures can be manipulated by controlling reaction parameters, for example, solution composition, applied voltage, and time. The methods can be used at ambient conditions, for example, room temperature and atmospheric pressure and use moderate electric potentials. The methods are scalable with a high degree of controllability and reproducibility.

  • Carbon nanotubes solder composite for high performance interconnect

    An embodiment of the present invention is an interconnect technique. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are prepared. A CNT-solder composite paste is formed containing the CNTs and solder with a pre-defined volume fraction.

  • Synthesis of nanoparticles by laser pyrolysis

    The present invention relates to the synthesis of nanoparticles by laser hydrolysis. For this purpose, a precursor interacts with a laser beam (LAS) in a pyrolysis reactor (REAC) for producing nanoparticles (nP), characterized in that the precursor is firstly in the liquid state and is then converted into the vapor phase and in that the flow rate of the precursor is controlled in the liquid phase.

  • Flow dielectrophoretic separation of single wall carbon nanotubes

    According to some embodiments, a method for separating a first fraction of a single wall carbon nanotubes and a second fraction of single wall carbon nanotubes includes, but is not limited to: flowing a solution comprising the nanotubes into a dielectrophoresis chamber; applying a DC voltage, in combination with an AC voltage, to the dielectrophoresis chamber; and collecting a first eluent from the dielectrophoresis chamber, wherein the first eluent comprises the first fraction and is depleted of the second fraction, wherein the first and second fractions differ by at least one of conductivity, diameter, length, and combinations thereof.

  • Upconversion fluorescent nano-structured material and uses thereof

    Upconversion fluorescent nano-structured material(s) comprising at least one compound of formula (M.sub.1).sub.j(M.sub.2).sub.kX.sub.n:(M.sub.3).sub.q and at least one polymer, wherein: each X is the same or different and is selected from the group consisting of: halogen, O, S, Se, Te, N, P and As; each M.sub.1, if present, is the same or different and is selected from the group consisting of: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, O and NH.sub.4; each M.sub.2 is the same or different and is a metal ion; each M.sub.3, independently, is the same or different and is selected from the group consisting of Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu; j is 0.ltoreq.j.ltoreq.10; k is 1.ltoreq.k.ltoreq.10; n is 1.ltoreq.n.ltoreq.10; and q is 1.ltoreq.q.ltoreq.10. In particular, the polymer is wherein the polymer soluble in polar solvents.


    The invention relates to nanotechnology. The carbon-bearing nanoparticle consists of a cubical carbon monocrystal nucleus, the size of which is equal to or less than 4 nm, and a monocrystalline carbon shell having an SP.sup.3 structure and a thickness ranging from 0.19 to 0.2 nm. The method for producing carbon-bearing NSP.sup.3 nanoparticles involves exploding a charge of blasting material having a negative oxygen balance. The charge is preliminary surrounded by ice with a temperature less than minus 25.degree. C. The ratio of the mass of the ice to the mass of the explosive charge is of 1:4-6. The suspension of carbon-bearing nanoparticles produced as a result of explosion is chemically purified. The thus produced suspension is disaggregated by being repeatedly frozen to a temperature lower than the liquid hydrogen boiling point. Once the suspension has been disaggregated, it is exposed to the action of ultrasonic waves with a frequency of 18-27 Hz for 5-18 minutes. The blasting material consists of a trinitrotoluene and cyclonite mixture and is in the form a cylinder-shaped plastic mixture with a ratio of the cylinder diameter to the height thereof of 1:6. The method for chemically purifying the suspension involves removing metal impurities from the suspension by heating it for 5-7 hours in a 10-25% nitric acid solution.


    Shape controlled synthesis of ferroelectric nanocrystals such as barium titanate (BaTiO.sub.3) nanocrystals is described. By tuning the molar ratio between the surfactant and the metal precursors, BaTiO.sub.3 nanocrystals with different shapes are readily obtained. This provides the nanoscopic ferroelectric building blocks for the fabrication of various electronic devices, as well as for fundamental research in nanoscience and nanotechnology.


    The present disclosure relates to spore surface display compositions comprising a spore having at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding for at least one polypeptide and operable to express the polypeptide on a surface of the spore. In some embodiments, the displayed polypeptide is displayed with a spore carrier protein. In some embodiments, the spore may be derived from a Clostriduim sp. such as Clostriduim taeniosporum. Spore display compositions of the disclosure may include vaccines, fusion proteins, drug delivery devices, systems for generating an antibody to an antigen/peptide expressed on a spore surface, an anticancer drug, an immobilized enzyme system, a system for serological reagent preparation, a contaminant removal system, a biocatalysis system, a screening platform, a nanotechnology platform, a bioanalytical sensor, a molecular electronic system and/or a signal processing system. Methods for making and using these compositions are described.


    Systems and methods generally useful in medicine, cellular biology, nanotechnology, and cell culturing are discussed. In particular, at least in some embodiments, systems and methods for magnetic guidance and patterning of cells and materials are discussed. Some specific applications of these systems and methods may include levitated culturing of cells away from a surface, making and manipulating patterns of levitated cells, and patterning culturing of cells on a surface. Specifically, a method of culturing cells is presented. The method may comprise providing a plurality of cells, providing a magnetic field, and levitating at least some of the plurality of cells in the magnetic field, wherein the plurality of cells comprise magnetic nanoparticles. The method may also comprise maintaining the levitation for a time sufficient to permit cell growth to form an assembly.

  • Adaptive Airway Treatment of Dorsal Displacement Disorders in Horses

    An adaptive airway treatment system is described for treating a dorsal displacement disorder in a horse. A pacemaker processor generates a dorsal displacement disorder treatment signal as a function of at least one therapy parameter. One or more stimulation electrodes are adapted to interface with tissue of the horse for delivering the treatment signal to continuously or intermittently stimulate soft palate tissue of the horse during an entire period of increased activity of the horse or for training prior to exercise.


    Disclosed are compounds and methods related to boronic acid derivatives of resveratrol. Certain of these derivatives have enhanced efficacy relative to resveratrol, function as irreversible modulators, and act at the GI/S phase of the cell cycle.

  • Spinal Protective Device

    A spinal protective device includes a plurality of support members abutted in series with one another along a spine of a user. Each adjacent pair of support members has a respective pair of forward fulcrum contact areas where the support members abut one another for relative pivotal movement in a hyperflexion direction and a respective pair of rearward fulcrum contact areas where the support members abut one another for relative pivotal movement in a hyperextension direction. A rear tension member connected between the support members limits relative movement in the hyperflexion direction and a front tension member connected between the support members limits relative movement between the support members in the hyperextension direction. Straps about the torso secure the support members along the spine of the user.

  • Apparatus for Using Handheld Devices

    An apparatus for using a handheld device is disclosed herein. As disclosed herein, an apparatus for using a handheld device includes a body and a member. The body is configured to conform to a digit of a user of the apparatus. The member is connected to the body adjacent to the user's digit, and is designed to transfer force from the user's digit to a responsive portion of a handheld device. The transfer of force from the user's digit to the responsive portion of the handheld device produces a desired input related to the handheld device.

  • Implantable biochip for managing trauma--induced hemorrhage

    A biocompatible biosensor and transmitter device for temporary implantation prior to, during and following trauma-induced hemorrhaging detects the presence and level of at least one analyte and transmits detected data to a second, external device. Thus, a method for managing post-trauma patient outcomes includes providing such a biosensor and transmitter device, temporarily implanting the biocompatible biosensor and transmitter device intramuscularly in a trauma victim; and monitoring the presence and level of the at least one analyte detected by the biocompatible biosensor and transmitter device and transmitted to the external data receiving means.

  • Dental abutment with a force transducer interfacing with a nerve

    The presently disclosed subject matter has application in the fields of Medicine, Neurology, Stomatology, Dentistry, Maxillofacial Surgery and Gerontology, using electronics nanotechnology and biomechanics technologies. The disclosed subject matter includes a bionic device of transduction of the mastication pressure into an electrical stimulus, capable of being perceived by the organism in the form of a nociceptive stimulus, which triggers in the organism an appropriate motor response of defense or decrease of muscle contraction. A generating device of nociceptive stimulus able to stimulate the brain areas related to chewing can be provided, modulating the muscular response thus avoiding the problems of overload during the process of mastication or while sleeping, involuntary movements called parafunctions of mastication, which translates to sharply wear down the dental crowns, also called bruxism. An exemplary embodiment can includes a driver, interface with the nervous structures, prosthetic abutment, and processing device and force transducer.

  • Novel biomimetic peptoid polymers

    The present invention provides for novel peptoid oligomers that are capable of self-assembling into two-dimensional sheet structures. The peptoid oligomers can have alternately hydrophilic or polar side-chains and hydrophobic or apolar side-chains. The peptoid oligomers, and the two-dimensional sheet structures, can be applied to biological applications where the peptoid plays a role as a biological scaffold or building block. Also, the two-dimensional sheet structures of the present invention can be used as two-dimensional nanostructures in device applications.

  • Zinc Comprising Nanoparticles And Related Nanotechnology

    Nanoparticles comprising zinc, methods of manufacturing nanoparticles comprising zinc, and applications of nanoparticles comprising zinc, such as electrically conducting formulations, reagents for fine chemical synthesis, pigments and catalysts are provided, and more particularly, a coating, comprising a nanomaterial composition comprising zinc and at least one metal other than zinc, wherein the at least one metal comprises an element that (a) has an oxidation state higher than an oxidation state of zinc and that (b) dopes zinc in the nanomaterial composition, and wherein the coating has an electrical conductivity greater than 0.0001 mhoscm.


    Electronic component which modifies, by electronic re-equilibration, mechanical efficiencies, audio-visual effects, and food products. The electronic component eCRT is a regulator which, like entropy, regulates the exchanges of natural equilibrium of the information of electro-magnetic charges with electronic charges. This equilibrium is to naturally clean the air and the excess of magnetic charges around apparatus or in inert products that have accumulated non-useful electrons which are then absorbed, attracted captured by the trap of the metallic components. Nanotechnology makes it possible to see the migration of the magnetic fields converted into electric current whose piezo is fed in order to vibrate. These functions are all natural but, associated together, they create novel functions specific to this method. This vision of nano-technology makes it possible to solve, on a large scale, invisible solutions, through a vision of suitable scale. The application to sound in ambient space of the eCRT electronic component is the supreme demonstration of the audio magnetic loss captured by the piezo-electricity eCRT which captures the magnetic field instantaneously and transforms the magnetic information into electric current, according to the audio modulation. This audio electrical modulation by the thirst, the transience of the piezoelectricity is transformed into audible mechanical motion of the sound lost initially by the coil.

  • Nanopillar Decoupling Capacitor

    Techniques for incorporating nanotechnology into decoupling capacitor designs are provided. In one aspect, a decoupling capacitor is provided. The decoupling capacitor comprises a first electrode; an intermediate layer adjacent to the first electrode having a plurality of nanochannels therein; a conformal dielectric layer formed over the intermediate layer and lining the nanochannels; and a second electrode at least a portion of which is formed from an array of nanopillars that fill the nanochannels in the intermediate layer. Methods for fabricating the decoupling capacitor are also provided, as are semiconductor devices incorporating the decoupling capacitor design.


    The disclosed technology relates to nanotechnology, petrochemistry, gas chemistry, coal chemistry, in particular to a catalyst based on carbon nanotubes for synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO and H.sub.2 and a preparation method thereof. The carbon nanotubes fixed in the catalyst pellet pores improve mass and heat transfer in the catalyst pellet and the catalyst bed.


    In a powered actuator for supplying torque, joint equilibrium, and/or impedance to a joint, a motor is directly coupled to a low-reduction ratio transmission, e.g., a transmission having a gear ratio less than about 80 to 1. The motor has a low dissipation constant, e.g., less than about 50 W/(Nm).sup.2. The transmission is serially connected to an elastic element that is also coupled to the joint, thereby supplying torque, joint equilibrium, and/or impedance to the joint while minimizing the power consumption and/or acoustic noise of the actuator.


    A living tissue-engineered skin graft having a potential to develop hair follicles includes a multilayered skin-like structure of alternating nanofiber mats and layers of fibroblasts assembled in a layer-by-layer fashion. Aggregates of dermal papilla capable of developing into hair follicles are embedded in the multilayered structure such that the aggregates develop into hair follicles upon culturing the multilayered structure. Keratinocytes are provided as an outer layer of the skin graft. Fibroblasts, keratinocytes and dermal papilla cells are isolated from skin and cultured to form suspensions of cells for fabricating the skin graft. Aggregates of dermal papilla cells are generated using a hanging drop method. Nanofiber mats are formed by electrospinning biocompatible materials onto a culture media or a layer of fibroblast suspension. The skin graft has dermal and epidermal layers and provides a biomimetic environment to promote healing and hair growth.


    An antiretlective biomimetic hierarchical structure, a composite antiretlective hierarchical structure, and an antiretlective surface including a pattern of antiretlective biomimetic hierarchical structures are provided. The antiretlective hierarchical structures include one or more clusters of primary structures and a plurality of secondary structures formed on each of the primary structures. The primary structures have dimensions in the micrometer range with a major dimension of approximately two micrometers. Each of the secondary structures has dimensions in the nanometer range wherein the pitch and height are approximately three hundred nanometers.


    A powered device augments a joint function of a human during a gait cycle using a powered actuator that supplies an augmentation torque, an impedance, or both to a joint. A controller estimates terrain slope and modulates the augmentation torque and the impedance according to a phase of the gait cycle and the estimated terrain slope to provide at least a biomimetic response. The controller may also modulate a joint equilibrium. Accordingly, the device is capable of normalizing or augmenting human biomechanical function, responsive to a wearer's activity, regardless of speed and terrain, and can be used, for example, as a knee orthosis, prosthesis, or exoskeleton.


    A powered device augments a joint function of a human during a gait cycle using a powered actuator that supplies an augmentation torque, an impedance, or both to a joint, and a controller that modulates the augmentation torque, the impedance, and a joint equilibrium according to a phase of the gait cycle to provide at least a biomimetic response. Accordingly, the device is capable of normalizing or augmenting human biomechanical function, responsive to a wearer's activity, regardless of speed and terrain.


    In a communication system for controlling a powered human augmentation device, a parameter of the powered device is adjusted within a gait cycle by wirelessly transmitting a control signal thereto, whereby the adjusted parameter falls within a target range corresponding to that parameter. The target range is selected and the device parameters are controlled such that the powered device can normalize or augment human biomechanical function, responsive to a wearer's activity, regardless of speed and terrain and, in effect, provides at least a biomimetic response to the wearer of the powered device.


    In a communication system for controlling a powered human augmentation device, a parameter of the powered device is adjusted within a gait cycle by wirelessly transmitting a control signal thereto, whereby the adjusted parameter falls within a target range corresponding to that parameter. The target range is selected and the device parameters are controlled such that the powered device can normalize or augment human biomechanical function, responsive to a wearer's activity, regardless of speed and terrain and, in effect, provides at least a biomimetic response to the wearer of the powered device.


    A supramolecular assembly comprising a metal-organic molecular framework and a heterocyclic macrocycle guest molecule. The metal-organic molecular framework comprises cubicuboctahedral cavities, octahemioctahedral cavities and trigonal cavities in a 1:1:2 ratio, respectively, and the heterocyclic macrocycle guest molecule is hosted by the octahemioctahedral cavity. In a preferred embodiment, the heterocyclic macrocycle guest molecule is a heme.


    The present invention provides methods of strengthening composites. In some embodiments, such methods generally comprise a step of applying a dynamic stress to the composite in order to increase at least one of the stiffness or strength of the composite. In some embodiments, the composite comprises: a polymer matrix; nanomaterial fillers; and an interphase between the polymer matrix and the nanomaterial fillers. In some embodiments, the stiffness or strength of the composite increases permanently in response to the applied stress. In some embodiments, the increase in the stiffness or strength of the composite may be associated with an increase in the storage modulus of the composite, a decrease in the loss modulus of the composite, and a decrease in the loss tangent of the composite. In some embodiments, the applied stress results in a rearrangement of the interphase.


    An electro-magnetic radiation detector is described. The electro-magnetic radiation detector includes a detector material and a voltage biasing element. The detector material includes a substantially regular array of nano-particles embedded in a matrix material. The voltage biasing element is configured to apply a bias voltage to the matrix material such that electrical current is directly generated based on a cooperative plasmon effect in the detector material when electro-magnetic radiation in a predetermined wavelength range is incident upon the detector material, where the dominant mechanism for decay in the cooperative plasmon effect is non-radiative.

  • Compositions and Methods for Treating a Disorder or Defect in Soft Tissue

    The present invention encompasses methods and compositions for generating a biomimetic proteoglycan. The invention includes methods of treating a disease, disorder, or condition of soft tissue using a biomimeticproteoglycan.


    A method for inspecting an edible oil includes obtaining a first Raman spectrum from an edible oil sample, discovering an unhealthy, unsanitary, unsafe, or adulterated content in the edible oil sample in part by the intensity level of the fluorescence background in the first Raman spectrum, introducing the edible oil sample to nano-scale surface structures to allow molecules of the edible oil sample to be adsorbed to the nano-scale surface structures, illuminating the edible oil sample and the nano-scale surface structures by a laser beam, obtaining a second Raman spectrum from light scattered by molecules of the edible oil sample adsorbed to the nano-scale surface structures, and identifying the unhealthy, unsanitary, or unsafe content in the edible oil sample using one or more first spectral signatures in the second Raman spectrum.


    The invention relates to light-emitting devices, and related components, systems and methods. In one aspect, the present invention is related to light emitting diode (LED) light extraction efficiency. A non-limiting example, the application teaches a method for improving light emitting diode (LED) extraction efficiency, by providing a nano-rod light emitting diode; providing quantum wells; and reducing the size of said nano-rod LED laterally in the quantum-well plane (x and y), thereby improving LED extraction efficiency.


    The present invention relates to nanoparticles the surface of which is modified by deposition of proteins. The invention further relates to a method for producing said nanoparticles and to their use in biological research and in the biomedical field (for example labelling and diagnosis).

  • Tools and Method for Nanopores Unzipping-Dependent Nucleic Acid Sequencing

    Provided herein is a library that comprises a plurality of molecular beacons (MBs), each MB having a detectable label, a detectable label blocker and a modifier group. The library is used in conjunction with nanopore unzipping-dependent sequencing of nucleic acids.

  • Polymeric Support With Nanofeatures for Cell Culture

    The invention provides a cell support device comprising a nanofiber structure disposed on a concave surface of a substrate. and the curvature of the substrate in combination with the nanotopography provided by the nanofiber support provides the necessary environmental cues that promote organization, growth, differentiation and morphogenesis of secretory epithelial cells, such as salivary gland epithelial cells. The nanotopography of the device is influenced by features of the nanofiber structure including nanofiber diameter, pore size, biochemical modification and curvature.


    Compositions are provided comprising a nanofiber scaffold that is seeded with one or more relevant cells and has a basketweave configuration that mimics the structure of a tissue, such as a cardiac tissue. Methods for treating damaged cardiac tissue in a subject are also provided and include applying an effective amount of the composition to damaged cardiac tissue. Methods for making nanofiber scaffold compositions are further provided and include electrospinning a biodegradable polymer onto a mandrel to create a mat of electrospun nanofibers, dividing the mat into nanofiber strips; and weaving the strips into a nanofiber scaffold having a basketweave configuration that mimics the structure of a tissue.


    The present invention concerns a biomaterial comprising a nanofibrous scaffold made of polymers, such as poly(.epsilon.-caprolactone) or collagen, coated with at least one layer pair consisting of a layer of polyanions and a layer of polycations, wherein said at least one layer pair incorporates a therapeutic molecule such as a growth factor. The biomaterial may optionally comprise living cells such as osteoblasts and/or chondrocytes.


    A method of manufacturing bulk nano-structured low carbon steel includes: preparing a blank of bulk low carbon steel; impacting the blank of bulk low carbon steel by using a compression device, so as to force the blank of bulk low carbon steel to perform a deformation at a high strain rate normally in a range of 10.sup.2-10.sup.3/s, so that the microstructure of the blank of bulk low carbon steel is nano-structured, that is, bulk nano-structured low carbon steel is thus manufactured. The bulk nano-structured low carbon steel is a plate having a thickness of not less than 5 mm or a bar having a diameter of not less than 5 mm.


    A method of manufacturing bulk nano-structured low carbon steel includes: preparing a blank of bulk low carbon steel; impacting the blank of bulk low carbon steel by using a compression device, so as to force the blank of bulk low carbon steel to perform a deformation at a high strain rate normally in a range of 10.sup.2-10.sup.3/s, so that the microstructure of the blank of bulk low carbon steel is nano-structured, that is, bulk nano-structured low carbon steel is thus manufactured. The bulk nano-structured low carbon steel is a plate having a thickness of not less than 5 mm or a bar having a diameter of not less than 5 mm.


    A magnetron sputtering coating device includes a deposition chamber, sputtering cathodes, a rotating stand within the deposition chamber, a support platform on the rotating stand, a first rotation system for driving the rotating stand to rotate around a central axis of the rotating stand, and a baffle fixed on the rotating stand. The sputtering cathodes are arranged around and perpendicular to the rotating stand.


    A photovoltaic device includes an electron accepting material and an electron donating material. One of the electron accepting or donating materials is configured and dimensioned as a first component of a bulk heterojunction with a predetermined array of first structures, each first structure is substantially equivalent in three dimensional shape, has a substantially equivalent cross-sectional dimension, and where each first structure of the array of first structures has a substantially equivalent orientation with respect to adjacent first structures of the predetermined array forming a substantially uniform array.

  • Dispersions in Oil of Dead Sea Nano Sized Material Preparation and Uses Therof

    The present disclosure is directed to dispersions of a Dead Sea material in oil, the Dead Sea material is present in the dispersions in the form of solid nanoparticles. Further disclosed are formulations comprising the dispersions, method of treating and/or preventing diseases or disorders of the skin comprising topical application of the dispersions or formulations thereof onto a skin of a subject, method of inducing a heat sensation on the skin of a subject by topically applying the dispersions or formulations thereof onto a skin of a subject and methods of preparing the dispersions.


    The present invention provides a lipid nano-particles, which allow nucleic acids to be easily introduced into cells, comprising a cationic lipid represented by formula (I) (wherein: R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are, the same or different, alkenyl, etc, and X.sup.3 is absent or is alkyl, etc, X.sup.1 and X.sup.2 are hydrogen atoms, or are combined together to form a single bond or alkylene, and Y.sup.1 is absent or anion, L.sup.1 is a single bond, etc, R.sup.3 is alkyl, etc), and a cationic lipid represented by formula (II) (wherein: R.sup.4 and R.sup.5 are, the same or different, alkenyl, etc, and X.sup.4 and X.sup.5 are hydrogen atoms, or are combined together to form a single bond or alkylene, and X.sup.6 is absent or is alkyl, etc, Y.sup.2 is absent or anion, a and b are, the same or different, 0 to 3, and L.sup.4 is a single bond, etc, R.sup.6 is alkyl, etc, L.sup.2 and L.sup.3 are --O--, --CO--O-- or --O--CO--), and the like. ##STR00001##


    Nano structure patterning formation includes coating a part of a structural guide with a hydrophobic polymer, positioning the structural guide on a substrate, coating at least a part of the substrate with a film made of a block copolymer, and annealing the film made of the block copolymer to align the block copolymer.


    A device having a nano-wire array and a method for manufacturing an array of nano-wires. The method includes spraying on a substrate droplets of a suspension that comprises nano-wires and at least a partially volatile solvent; and evaporating the at least partially volatile solvent of the droplets to form the array of nano-wires. At least one of the spraying and the evaporating comprises executing at least one aggregation reduction measure for limiting a formation of three dimensional aggregations of nano-wires on the substrate.

  • Low Loss Nano-aperture

    Low loss optical apertures are provided. A silicon intermediate layer sandwiched between a metal aperture layer and a dielectric layer has been found to offer a good combination of low optical loss combined with superior mechanical properties.


    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of forming an organic electric device that includes providing a plurality of carbon nanostructures; and dispersing the plurality of carbon nanostructures in a polymeric matrix to provide a polymeric composite, wherein when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a first concentration an interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix is characterized by charge transport when an external energy is applied, and when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a second concentration the interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix are characterized by exciton dissociation when an external energy is applied, wherein the first concentration is less than the second concentration.


    An interpenetrating network assembly with a network of connected flakes of nano-scale crystalline carbon and nano-scale particles of an electroactive material interconnected with the carbon flakes is provided. The network assemblies are particularly suited for energy storage applications that use metal oxide electroactive materials and a single charge collector or a source and drain. Interpenetrating networks of graphene flakes and metal oxide nanosheets can form independent pathways between source and drain. Nano-scale conductive materials such as metal nanowires, carbon nanotubes, activated carbon or carbon black can be included as part of the conductive network to improve charge transfer.

  • Mechanical Method For Producing Micro- Or Nano-Scale Textures

    A mechanical method for producing micro-scale and nano-scale textures that facilitates, for example, the cost-effective production of nanostructures on large-scale substrates, e.g., during the large-scale production of thin-film solar cells. A "scratcher" (multi-pointed abrasion mechanism) is maintained in a precise position relative to a target substrate such that micron-level features (protrusions) extending from the scratcher's base structure are precisely positioned to contact a surface material layer of the target substrate with a predetermined amount of force, and then moved relative to the substrate (e.g., by way of a conveying mechanism) while maintaining the pressing force such that the micron-level features define elongated parallel nano-scale grooves and/or form nano-scale ridges in the surface material layer (i.e., by mechanically displacing) portions of the surface material layer to form the nano-scale grooves/ridges).


    The invention discloses composition of oxidized conducting polymer and micelle assembly for site specific delivery of guest molecule. This delivery is achieved by by polyvalent interaction between micelle assemblies and delocalized charges of polymer to trigger the disassembly. The invention further discloses the process of preparation of composition of oxidized conducting polymer and micelle assembly for site specific delivery of guest molecule.

  • Nano-MOS Devices and Method of Making

    The present invention discloses a method of making nano-MOS devices having a metal gate, thereby avoiding the poly depletion effect, and enhancing the MOS device's performance. The method forms metal gates by depositing a metal film over sidewall surfaces on two sides of a polycrystalline semiconductor layer. The metal in the metal film diffuses toward the sidewall surfaces of the polycrystalline semiconductor layer and forms, after annealing, metal-semiconductor compound nanowires (i.e., metal gates) on the sidewall surfaces of the polycrystalline semiconductor layer. Thus, high-resolution lithography is not required to form metal compound semiconductor nanowires, resulting in significant cost saving. At the same time, a nano-MOS device is also disclosed, which includes a metal gate, thereby avoiding the poly depletion effect, and resulting in enhanced MOS device performance.