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Inventi Rapid - Chemical Engineering

Patent Watch

  • PROCESSES FOR THE CRYSTALLIZATION OF 2,2,4,4-TETRAMETHYLCYCLOBUTANEDIOL

    Disclosed is a novel process for the continuous crystallization of a mixture of cis-2,2,4,4-tetramethylcyclobutanediol and trans-2,2,4,4-tetramethylcyclobutanediol dissolved in a solvent.

  • PROCESS FOR SELECTIVELY POLYMERIZING ETHYLENE AND CATALYST THEREFOR

    The present invention generally relates to a process that selectively polymerizes ethylene in the presence of an alpha-olefin, and to a metal-ligand complex (precatalyst) and catalyst useful in such processes, and to related compositions. The present invention also generally relates to ligands and intermediates useful for preparing the metal-ligand complex and to processes of their preparation.

  • METHODS, SYSTEMS AND COMPOSITIONS RELATED TO MICROBIAL BIO-PRODUCTION OF BUTANOL AND/OR ISOBUTANOL

    Embodiments herein generally relate to methods, compositions, systems and uses for enabling bio-production of or increasing bio-production of alcohol molecules by microorganisms. Certain embodiments relate to compositions and methods enabling or increasing the bio-production of 4-carbon alcohol molecules by bacteria. In some embodiments, compositions and methods relate to introducing isobutyryl-CoA isomerase to a culture of microorganisms to enable or increase the bio-production of four-carbon alcohols. Variations of biosynthesis pathways for microbial bio-production of butanol and/or isobutanol are provided.

  • LDPE TUBULAR REACTOR PEROXIDE MIXER

    An initiator injection nozzle for mixing an initiator with a process fluid, comprising: a body comprising an inlet port to receive the process fluid, an outlet port, and an injector inlet to receive initiator; a process fluid flow passage through which the process fluid traverses between the inlet port and outlet port along a central process flow axis, further comprising a constricting portion, a throat, and an expanding portion in that order, --an initiator fluid flow passage through which the initiator traverses between the injector inlet and injector outlet along an injector central vertical axis, where the initiator fluid flow passage intersects the process fluid flow passage in the constricting portion; a stylus at least partially containing the initiator fluid flow passage and further comprising a shaped injector tip forming the injector outlet of the initiator fluid flow passage; where the injector outlet is located in the constricting portion of the process fluid flow passage and upstream of the throat by a horizontal offset as determined along the central process flow axis; and where the injector outlet is located off the central process flow axis by a vertical offset as determined along the injector central vertical axis.

  • SYNTHETIC CONJUGATES AND USES THEREOF

    The present disclosure provides a cross-linked material comprising conjugates which include two or more separate affinity ligands bound to a non-polymeric framework, wherein the molecular weight of the non-polymeric framework is less than 10,000 Da; and multivalent cross-linking agents that non-covalently bind the affinity ligands of the conjugates and thereby cross-link the conjugates to form a cross-linked material, wherein the non-covalent bonds between the multivalent cross-linking agents and the affinity ligands are competitively dissociated in the presence of excess amounts of a target molecule. The present disclosure also provides methods of making and methods of using these materials. In other aspects, the present disclosure provides exemplary conjugates including conjugates for use in glucose responsive cross-linked materials.

  • Process for Producing Ethanol

    A process for producing ethanol including a combination of biochemical and synthetic conversions results in high yield ethanol production with concurrent production of high value coproducts. An acetic acid intermediate is produced from carbohydrates, such as corn, using enzymatic milling and fermentation steps, followed by conversion of the acetic acid into ethanol using esterification and hydrogenation reactions. Coproducts can include corn oil, and high protein animal feed containing the biomass produced in the fermentation.

  • PROCESS AND DEVICE FOR SIMULTANEOUSLY DESULFURIZING AND DENITRATING THE FLUE GAS WITH THE SEAWATER

    A process for simultaneously desulfurizing and denitrating the flue gas with seawater includes the following steps: 1) catalytically scrubbing the flue gas containing SO.sub.2 and NOx with the seawater to obtain purified flue gas and acidic seawater, optionally adding a certain quantity of iron ions into the seawater or applying magnetic field during scrubbing; 2) adding seawater into the acidic seawater while blowing air in so as to restore the quality of the acidic seawater up to the environmental standards. Also a device used in the process is provided.

  • Pyrazole Compounds for Controlling Invertebrate Pests

    The present invention relates to pyrazole compounds of formulae I or II and the salts and N-oxides thereof, ##STR00001## wherein A is a pyrazole radical of formulae A1, A2 or A3, wherein ##STR00002## # denotes the binding site; R.sup.41, R.sup.42, R.sup.43, R.sup.51 are H, halogen, CN, NO.sub.2, C.sub.1-C.sub.10-alkyl and the like; R.sup.52, R.sup.53 are H, halogen, CN, NO.sub.2, C.sub.1-C.sub.10-alkyl, and the like; R.sup.61, R.sup.62, R.sup.63 are H, CN, NO.sub.2, C.sub.1-C.sub.10-alkyl, and the like; T is C(R.sup.t) or N; U is C(R.sup.u) or N; V is C(R.sup.v) or N; W is C(R.sup.w) or N; with the proviso that at least one of the groups T, U, V and W is N; R.sup.t, R.sup.u, R.sup.v, R.sup.w are H, halogen, C.sub.1-C.sub.4-alkyl and the like; X.sup.1 is S, O or NR.sup.1a, wherein R.sup.1a is selected H, C.sub.1-C.sub.10-alkyl and the like; X.sup.2 is OR.sup.2a, NR.sup.2bR.sup.2c, S(O).sub.mR.sup.2d, wherein m is 0, 1 or 2, R.sup.2a is C.sub.1-C.sub.4-alkyl, C.sub.1-C.sub.4-haloalkyl and the like, R.sup.2b, R.sup.2c are H, C.sub.1-C.sub.4-alkyl, C.sub.1-C.sub.4-haloalkyl and the like, or R.sup.2b and R.sup.2c together with the nitrogen atom to which they are bound form a heterocycle, and R.sup.2d is C.sub.1-C.sub.4-alkyl, C.sub.1-C.sub.4-haloalkyl, C.sub.3-C.sub.6-cycloalkyl and the like; and R.sup.1 is H, CN, C.sub.1-C.sub.10-alkyl and the like. The present invention further relates to a method for controlling invertebrate pests, to a method for protecting plant propagation material and/or the plants which grow therefrom, to plant propagation material, comprising at least one compound according to the present invention, to a method for treating or protecting an animal from infestation or infection by parasites and to an agricultural composition containing at least one compound according to the present invention.

  • FUSION WELDING METHOD FOR CONNECTING THIN-WALLED CASINGS

    The method for connecting thin-walled casings by fusion welding comprises the following: preparation of the end faces to be connected of the casings, abutting arrangement on centring devices and common melting of the end faces to be connected while an arrangement gap sufficient for carrying out the welding is temporarily maintained between the surfaces lying against one another of the end faces. On each of the casings to be connected, deforming of the micro-projections on the surface to be welded of the end faces is carried out by plastic deformation along with upsetting of the material. On the end face, the metal to be deformed is moved to the side of the inner surface of the casing and an inner, annular bead strip is formed thereupon. The casings to be connected are arranged in a device that carries out centring with respect to the outer diameter. Then, initially at the circumference in the plane of the connection, spot welding thereof is carried out. Subsequently, main welding is carried out right through, thereby forming a fusion zone of a width between 4 d and 6 d, where d is the thickness of the wall of the casing to be welded in mm, and the heat removal in the parts to be welded begins at a distance that does not exceed 8 d from the centre line of the connection.

  • METHOD OF PRODUCING EPOXY COMPOUNDS

    Provided is a method of efficiently producing an epoxy compound from an allyl ether having an aromatic ring under mild conditions by using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent without using an organic solvent. The method of producing an epoxy compound comprises reacting an allyl ether having an aromatic ring with hydrogen peroxide to epoxidize a carbon-carbon double bond of an allyl group to thereby produce a corresponding epoxy compound having an aromatic ring, wherein water only is used as a solvent without using an organic solvent, and a tungsten compound, and a tertiary amine and/or a quaternary ammonium salt, are used as a reaction catalyst.

  • METHOD FOR PREPARING AN ACTINIDE(S) OXALATE AND FOR PREPARING AN ACTINIDE(S) COMPOUND

    A method for preparing an oxalate of one or more actinides for processing and recycling nuclear fuel, comprising: the precipitation of said actinide or the coprecipitation of said actinides in the form of oxalate particles by bringing into contact an aqueous solution containing the actinide(s) with an aqueous solution of oxalic acid or of an oxalic acid salt; and the collection of the resulting oxalate particles; characterized in that the precipitation or coprecipitation is carried out in fluidized bed.

  • PROCESS FOR THE CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF POLYESTERS

    A continuous process for the ring-opening polymerisation of cyclic ester monomers to form aliphatic polyesters at a temperature between 100-240.degree. C. which includes a) continuously providing cyclic ester monomer and polymerisation catalyst to a continuous mixing reactor, the reactor being operated at conditions effective for polymerisation to form a pre-polymerised reaction mixture, b) continuously removing pre-polymerised reaction mixture from the continuous mixing reactor and continuously providing pre-polymerised reaction mixture to a plug flow reactor, the plug flow reactor being operated under polymerisation conditions, wherein the reaction mixture is polymerised to a degree of polymerisation of at least 90%, to form polymer, and c) continuously removing polymer from the plug flow reactor.

  • METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING POLYMER PARTICLES

    Provided are: a manufacturing method for polymer particles, including: mixing a polymer solution, which is obtained by dissolving a polymer in a good solvent, and a polymer non-solvent, which is a non-solvent for the polymer and has compatibility with the good solvent, in a continuous or intermittent manner; and allowing a mixed solution of the polymer solution and the polymer non-solvent to flow down through a tubular body provided substantially vertically, thereby completing the precipitation of polymer particles; and a manufacturing apparatus for polymer particles. The manufacturing method enables the manufacture of polymer particles which have a relatively narrow particle diameter distribution even when the polymer particles are kept in a dispersion solution state.

  • Alkylaromatic production process

    The present disclosure provides a process for selectively producing a desired monoalkylated aromatic compound comprising the step of contacting in a reaction zone an alkylatable aromatic compound with an alkylating agent in the presence of catalyst comprising a porous crystalline material under at least partial liquid phase conditions, said catalyst manufactured from extrudate to comprise catalytic particulate material of from about 125 microns to about 790 microns in size, having an Effectiveness Factor increased from about 25% to about 750% from that of the original extrudate, and having an external surface area to volume ratio of greater than about 79 cm.sup.-1.

  • Photobioreactor systems and methods for treating CO.sub.2-enriched gas and producing biomass

    Certain embodiments and aspects of the present invention relate to a photobioreactor including covered photobioreactor units through which a liquid medium stream and a gas stream flow. The liquid medium comprises at least one species of phototrophic organism therein. Certain methods of using the photobioreactor system as part of fuel generation system and/or a gas-treatment process or system at least partially remove certain undesirable pollutants from a gas stream. In certain embodiments, a portion of the liquid medium is diverted from a photobioreactor unit and reintroduced upstream of the diversion position. In certain embodiments, the disclosed photobioreactor system, methods of using such systems, and/or gas treatment apparatus and methods provided herein can be used as part of an integrated combustion method and system, wherein photosynthetic organisms used within the photobioreactor are harvested from the photobioreactor, processed, and used as a fuel source for a combustion system such as an electric power plant.

  • Molecular sieve composition (EMM-10), its method of making, and use for hydrocarbon conversions

    This invention relates to a crystalline molecular sieve, in its ammonium exchanged form or in its calcined form, comprising unit cells with MWW topology, said crystalline molecular sieve is characterized by diffraction streaking from the unit cell arrangement in the c direction. The crystalline molecular sieve is further characterized by the arced hk0 patterns of electron diffraction pattern. The crystalline molecular sieve is further characterized by the unit cells streaking along c direction. This invention also relates to a method of making thereof.

  • Flue-Gas purification and reclamation system and method thereof

    A flue-gas purification system includes a flue-gas cycling system, a reactor, an absorbent adding system having at least a catalytic absorbent, wherein the catalytic absorbent is being gasified for reacting with the flue-gas in the reactor in a homogenous gas-gas phase reacting manner. Therefore, the purification system has fast reaction rate between the pollutants of the flue-gas and the catalytic absorbent, which is preferably ammonia, to efficiently remove pollutants, so as to effectively purify the flue-gas.

  • Catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation, and microchannel reactors for catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation

    Methods of oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) is provided wherein conducting ODH in microchannels has unexpectedly been found to yield superior performance when compared to the same reactions at the same conditions in larger reactors. ODH methods employing a Mo--V--Mg--O catalyst is also described. Microchannel apparatus for conducting ODH is also disclosed.

  • Production of ester-based fuels such as biodiesel from renewable starting materials

    Production of ester-based fuels such as biodiesel or jet fuel from renewable starting materials such as lignocellulosic material or algae is disclosed. Pulping and saccharification of the renewable starting materials produces carboxylic acids such as fatty acids or rosin acids, which are esterified via a gas sparged, slurry form of heterogeneous reactive distillation to yield ester-based fuels.

  • Base oil composition comprising oligomerized olefins

    Provided is a base oil, comprising one or more oligomerized olefins, wherein the base oil has: (d) a kinematic viscosity at 100.degree. C. grater than 2.9 mm.sup.2/s; (e) a viscosity index from 25 to 90; and (f) a cloud point less than -55.degree. C. Provided is a base oil made by oligomerizing propylene in an ionic liquid catalyst, where the base oil has a viscosity index from 25 to 90 and the base oil is colorless. Provided is a base oil made by oligomerizing an olefin feed comprising propylene in an acidic alkyl-pyridinium chloroaluminate ionic liquid, wherein the base oil has a viscosity index from 25 to 90, and a cloud point less than -55.degree. C.

  • Process to modify polymeric materials and resulting compositions

    Disclosed is a method for modifying a polymer by carrying out a thermally-induced reaction in a mixing apparatus having a high shear environment and devolatilization capabilities. Also disclosed are the resulting materials.

  • Abrasion-resistant transfer printing structure

    An abrasion-resistant transfer printing structure to transfer patterns and texts to a targeted object surface by press printing includes a hardened protecting layer and a release base layer. The hardened protection layer includes a first surface and a second surface. The first surface allows a transfer printing glue to be bonded to the targeted object to cover at least an area corresponding to the patterns and texts. The release base layer is located on the second surface of the hardened protection layer by a releasable manner and can be separated from the hardened protection layer by applying a release force after the press printing process is finished. Thus the hardened protection layer is exposed to isolate the patterns and texts from in contact with the exterior. The surface of the targeted object also is abrasion resistant.

  • Process and plant

    A reactor system, plant and a process for the production of methanol from synthesis gas is described in which the reactor system comprises: (a) a first reactor adapted to be maintained under methanol synthesis conditions having inlet means for supply of synthesis gas and outlet means for recovery of a first methanol-containing stream, said first reactor being charged with a first volume of a methanol synthesis catalyst through which the synthesis gas flows and on which in use, partial conversion of the synthesis gas to a product gas mixture comprising methanol and un-reacted synthesis gas will occur adiabatically; and (b) a second reactor adapted to be maintained under methanol synthesis conditions having inlet means for supply of the gaseous first methanol-containing stream, outlet means for recovery of a second methanol-containing stream and cooling means, said second reactor being charged with a second volume of a methanol synthesis catalyst through which the gaseous first methanol-containing stream flows and on which, in use, further conversion of the synthesis gas to a product gas mixture comprising methanol will occur.

  • Agrochemical formulations comprising N-vinylamid co-polymers

    The present invention comprises formulations comprising at least one pesticide and at least one co-polymer comprising (a) a N-vinylamid comonomer a) of formula (I) wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are independently of one another hydrogen or C.sub.1-C.sub.4 alkyl, preferably hydrogen or R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 represent together a --(CH.sub.2).sub.x moiety, which forms together with the nitrogen and the carbonyl-moiety a 5-8 membered ring, and (b) at least one comonomer b) selected from the group consisting of vinylpyrridin, vinylpyrridin derivatives and N-vinlyimidazole in polymerized form, methods of combating harmful insects and/or phytopathogenic fungi, a method of controlling undesired vegetation and methods of improving the health of plants based on the afore-mentioned formulations. ##STR00001##

  • High-throughput electrorefiner for recovery of U and U/TRU product from spent fuel

    The present invention provides a method of simultaneously removing uranium and transuranics from metallic nuclear fuel in an electrorefiner. In the method, a potential difference is established between an anode basket containing the fuel and a solid cathode of the electrorefiner, thereby creating a diffusion layer of uranium and transuranic ions at the solid cathode, a first current density at the anode basket, and a second current density at the solid cathode. The ratio of anode basket area to solid cathode area is selected based on the total concentration of uranium and transuranic metals in a molten halide electrolyte in the electrorefiner and the effective thickness of the diffusion layer at the solid cathode, such that the established first and second current densities result in both codeposition of uranium and transuranic metals on the solid cathode and oxidation of the metallic nuclear fuel in the anode basket.

  • Method of controlling a polymerization reactor

    Embodiments of the invention provide a method of controlling a gas-phase polymerization process. The method includes determining a difference between a control variable of the polymerization process, such as the production rate, and the desired value of the control variable; adjusting or maintaining a first manipulated variable to at least partially compensate for the difference between the control variable and the desired value; and adjusting or maintaining a second manipulated variable to at least partially compensate for the effect of adjusting or maintaining the first manipulated variable. The first and second manipulated variables can include process variables such as the fluidized bed weight, the catalyst concentration, the concentration of one or more monomers, the flow of one or more comonomers, the ratio of one comonomer to another comonomer, the activator concentration, the ratio of an activator to selectivity control agent, the concentration of a chain transfer agent, and the retardant concentration.

  • Methods for enhancing the efficiency of rhenium-promoted epoxidation catalysts and epoxidation methods utilizing these

    A method for enhancing the efficiency of a rhenium-promoted epoxidation catalyst is provided. Advantageously, the method may be carried out in situ, i.e., within the epoxidation process, and in fact, may be carried out during production of the desired epoxide. As such, a method for the epoxidation of alkylenes incorporating the efficiency-enhancing method is also provided, as is a method for using the alkylene oxides so produced for the production of 1,2-diols, 1,2-carbonates, 1,2-diol ethers, or alkanolamines.

  • Apparatus and method for polymer synthesis using arrays

    A polymer synthesis apparatus (20) for building a polymer chain including a head assembly (21) having an array of nozzles (22) with each nozzle coupled to a reservoir (23) of liquid reagent (24), and a base assembly (25) having an array of reaction wells (26). A transport mechanism (27) aligns the reaction wells (26) and selected nozzles (22) for deposition of the liquid reagent (24) into selected reaction wells (26). A sliding seal (30) is positioned between the head assembly (21) and the base assembly (25) to form a common chamber (31) enclosing both the reaction well (26) and the nozzles (22) therein. A gas inlet (70) into the common chamber (31), upstream from the nozzles (22), and a gas outlet (71) out of the common chamber (31), downstream from the nozzles (22), sweeps the common chamber (31) of toxic fumes emitted by the reagents. Each reaction well (26) includes an orifice (74) extending into the well (26) which is of a size and dimension to form a capillary liquid seal to retain the reagent solution (76) in the well (26) for polymer chain growth therein. A pressure regulating device (82) is provided for controlling a pressure differential, between a first gas pressure exerted on the reaction well (26) and a second gas pressure exerted on an exit (80) of the orifice, such that upon the pressure differential exceeding a predetermined amount, the reagent solution (76) is expelled from the well (26) through the orifice (74). A method of synthesis of a polymer chain in a synthesis apparatus (20) is also included.

  • Flow reactors for chemical conversions with heterogeneous catalysts

    Flow reactor having a plurality of walled conduits each having an outer surface disposed for contact with a heat-transfer medium, an inlet distribution manifold in flow communication with a downstream manifold through channels formed by heterogeneous catalytic material disposed within each conduit during operation, and a sequence of zones comprising at least two zones, the zones including the walled conduits. The walled conduits within each zone have the same or different length measured along a longitudinal coordinate of the zone, the walled conduits within each zone have essentially uniform cross-section measured in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal coordinate thereby defining volume of the zone, and in the sequence of zones, the total cross-sectional area of the conduits in each downstream zone varies from the prior upstream zone. At least one crossover chamber is provided in flow communication with the plurality of walled conduits of a downstream zone and the plurality of walled conduits of the prior upstream zone. A shell is present for maintaining during operation the outer surface the plurality of walled conduits of each zone predominantly in contact with a heat transfer medium, the shell having an inlet in flow communication with an outlet for flow of the heat-transfer medium.

  • MICROBIAL ENGINEERING FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CHEMICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS FROM THE ISOPRENOID PATHWAY

    The invention relates to the production of one or more terpenoids through microbial engineering, and relates to the manufacture of products comprising terpenoids.

  • Solid-state chemical current source and a method for increasing a discharge power

    A solid-state chemical current source and a method for increasing a discharge power thereof are disclosed. The current source can be used in electrochemicalengineering, in particular for primary and secondary solid-state chemical power sources. The solid-state chemical current source comprises a body provided with current leading-out wires and solid-state galvanic cells which are arranged therein, are connected to the current leading-out wires, are based on solid ion conductors and perform the function of heating elements. A heat insulation for reducing heat losses of the heated galvanic cells is arranged inside and\or outside the body. The inventive method for increasing the discharge power of the solid-state chemical current source by heating it consists in using the heat produced by the electric current flowing through the galvanic cells and in maintaining the hot state of the said galvanic cells during the discharge.

  • ALKYNYL SUGAR ANALOGS FOR LABELING AND VISUALIZATION OF GLYCOCONJUGATES IN CELLS

    Methods for metabolic oligosaccharide engineering that incorporates derivatized alkyne-bearing sugar analogs as "tags" into cellular glycoconjugates are disclosed. Alkynyl derivatized Fuc and alkynyl derivatized ManNAc sugars are incorporated into cellular glycoconjugates. Chemical probes comprising an azide group and a visual or fluorogenic probe and used to label alkyne-derivatized sugar-tagged glycoconjugates are disclosed. Chemical probes bind covalently to the alkynyl group by Cu(I)-catalyzed [3+2] azide-alkyne cycloaddition and are visualized at the cell surface, intracellularly, or in a cellular extract. The labeled glycoconjugate is capable of detection by flow cytometry, SDS-PAGE, Western blot, ELISA, confocal microscopy, and mass spectrometry.

  • One-Step Processing of Hydrogels for Mechanically Robust and Chemically Desired Features

    The application of a highly controlled, micron-sized, branched, porous architecture to enhance the handling properties and degradation rate of hydrogels is described in the instant invention. A previously described pattern created through one-step nucleated crystallization in a hydrogel film creates tunable mechanical properties and/or chemical stability for use in tissue engineering applications. The bulk mechanical properties and the degradation rate of the material can be tuned easily by the addition or subtraction of crystalline structure or by the addition and subtraction of backfill material, making this useful for a variety of applications. Relevant mechanical properties that can be tuned through the application of this unique porosity are moduli, elasticity, tensile strength, and compression strength. The method of the present invention can be applied to biopolymers and natural materials as well as synthetic materials.

  • ROLLER-TYPE HOMOGENIZING MILL

    The invention relates to the grinding method with simultaneous homogenization of powder-like material with liquid components in construction engineering, chemical and other industries. The roller breaker-homogenizer comprises a cone-shaped backing roll and not less than three driven rolls and driven rolls, the large bases of which face reverse directions. The rolls are arranged in the case with a replaceable cup vertically at the same level so that the driven rolls are located epicyclically relative to the backing roll and mounted in cantilever fashion in the case cover rotation bearing assemblies, and the backing roll is connected axially with a drive shaft via a spring coupling. An appliance used to regulate the spring coupling pressing force is mounted between the drive and spring coupling. The case cover has an opening for loading basic process materials above the upper end surface of the backing roll and an anchor-type mixer is fixed on the lower end surface of the backing roll.

  • NANOMETER SIZE CHEMICAL MODIFIED MATERIALS AND USES

    There are provided ligand compositions and stationary phases comprising a polyhedral oligomeric silsequioxane moiety. Also provided are chromatographic devices comprising the stationary phases, and methods of making and using the ligands, stationary phases and chromatographic devices of the invention.

  • ENHANCED CHEMICAL STRENGTHENING GLASS FOR PORTABLE ELECTRONIC DEVICES

    Apparatus, systems and methods for improving strength of a thin glass member for an electronic device are disclosed. In one embodiment, the glass member can have improved strength characteristics in accordance with a predetermined stress profile. The predetermined stress profile can be formed through multiple stages of chemical strengthening. The stages can, for example, have a first ion exchange stage where larger ions are exchanged into the glass member, and a second ion exchange stage where some of the larger ions are exchanged out from the glass member. In one embodiment, the glass member can pertain to a glass cover for a housing for an electronic device. The glass cover can be provided over or integrated with a display.

  • TWO-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM CONTROL HAVING AN EXPLICIT SWITCHING FOR CONTROLLING CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESSES

    The present invention relates to a method for performing closed-loop control of process-engineering processes, in which setpoint value trajectories are provided for closed-loop control variables, closed-loop control variables and further state variables of the process are detected, control errors are calculated and closed-loop controller manipulated variables are calculated therefrom by means of a control algorithm, and in addition pilot controller manipulated variables are determined, resulting manipulated variables are calculated from closed-loop controller manipulated variables and pilot controller manipulated variables and are set in the process, wherein the structure of the control algorithm and/or of the pilot control are/is changed as a function of closed-loop control variables, further state variables and/or setpoint value trajectories. Furthermore, the invention relates to a closed-loop control device and to a computer program for carrying out the method.

  • Method and system for reversible chemical modulation of neural activity

    Methods and related systems for modulating neural activity by repetitively blocking conduction in peripheral neural structures with chemical blocking agents are disclosed. Methods and systems for reversing effects of chemical blocking agents and/or for producing substantially permanent conduction block are also disclosed.

  • METHOD AND COMPOSITION FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM A FORMATION CONTAINING A CRUDE OIL WITH SPECIFIC SOLUBILITY GROUPS AND CHEMICAL FAMILIES

    A method of treating a formation containing crude oil with specific solubility groups and chemical families is described. The method includes (a) providing a hydrocarbon recovery composition to at least a portion of a formation containing crude oil with specific solubility groups and chemical families, wherein the composition comprises a C.sub.24-28 internal olefin sulfonate; and (b) allowing the composition to interact with hydrocarbons in the crude oil containing formation.

  • SYNTHETIC INSECTICIDAL PROTEINS ACTIVE AGAINST CORN ROOTWORM

    Traditionally, the primary method for impacting insect pest populations is the application of broad-spectrum chemical insecticides. However, there is increasing concern about the environmental hazards associated with the production and use of synthetic chemical pesticides. Thus, there is substantial interest in developing alternative pesticides, including biological control of insect pests of agricultural significance using a microbial agent or another species of insect. The present invention provides compositions and methods for such biological control. Modified Cry3 pesticidal polypeptides, polynucleotides encoding such polypeptides, and methods of use are disclosed. The modified polynucleotides provided herein can be used to transform organisms and cells of hosts comprising plant, insects, and microorganisms. The expression of modified polypeptides can provide the host with improved insecticidal activity against one or more insect pathogens.

  • ENERGY-RELEASING CARBON NANOTUBE TRANSPONDER AND METHOD OF USING SAME

    An energy-releasing carbon nanotube transponder comprising a nanocapacitor connected to at least one carbon nanotube and method of using same are described. An adjustable amount of electric energy is stored within the nanocapacitor so that the energy-releasing carbon nanotube transponder delivers either a biologically destructive or a biologically non-destructive electrical charge to target cells in response to biological, chemical or electrical stimuli. An optional biocompatible coating onto the outer surface of the carbon nanotube transponder improves cellular targeting, cellular binding or body tolerance towards the carbon nanotube transponder. Optionally, a molecular label attached to at least one carbon nanotube allows for in vivo tracking of the carbon nanotube transponder. The targeted release of electric energy from the carbon nanotube transponder can, for example, destroy cancer cells in cancer patients, or control the flux of electric wave within a cellular tissue to treat cardiac and/or epileptic patients.

  • COMPOSITION FOR THE ATTACHMENT OF IMPLANTS TO COLLAGEN OR OTHER COMPONENTS OF BIOLOGICAL TISSUE

    The present invention relates to a novel composition comprising an implant, scaffold or construct bound to a biological or chemical moiety. The bound moiety has the ability to bind to a component of the extracellular matrix of biological tissue, allowing the implant to be bound to the biological tissue in a short period of time after implantation. The invention also relates to the use and manufacture of this novel composition, as well as a novel use for the protein CNA

  • COMPOSITION FOR THE ATTACHMENT OF IMPLANTS TO COLLAGEN OR OTHER COMPONENTS OF BIOLOGICAL TISSUE

    The present invention relates to a novel composition comprising an implant, scaffold or construct bound to a biological or chemical moiety. The bound moiety has the ability to bind to a component of the extracellular matrix of biological tissue, allowing the implant to be bound to the biological tissue in a short period of time after implantation. The invention also relates to the use and manufacture of this novel composition, as well as a novel use for the protein CNA.

  • PROTEIN HAVING AFFINITY FOR IMMUNOGLOBULIN, AND IMMUNOGLOBULIN-BINDING AFFINITY LIGAND

    An object of the present invention is to create a novel engineered Protein A ligand having better antibody dissociation properties in the presence of an acid than conventional engineered Protein A ligands and a further object of the present invention is to create a novel engineered Protein A ligand having higher alkali resistance. The present invention is to provide a protein having an affinity for an immunoglobulin, including an amino acid sequence derived from any of E, D, A, B and C domains of Protein A, wherein at least one Gly residue in the amino acid sequence is replaced with an amino acid other than Ala, and the protein has a lower affinity for an Fab region of an immunoglobulin than a protein including an amino acid sequence in which the Gly residue is replaced with Ala. Also, the present invention is to provide the protein having an affinity for an immunoglobulin, which has improved chemical stability in an alkaline condition compared to the corresponding domain.

  • LUMINESCENT METAL ION COMPLEXES

    The present invention provides luminescent metal ion complexes for use in a wide range of biological and chemical studies. The luminescent metal ion complexes of the invention comprise a metal ion chelating component covalently bound to a carrier molecule. Also provided are methods of making and using the luminescent metal ion complexes.

  • Renewable Chemical Production From Novel Fatty Acid Feedstocks

    Disclosed herein are methods of manufacturing renewable chemicals through the manufacture of novel triglyceride oils followed by chemical modification of the oils. Methods such as transesterification, hydrogenation, hydrocracking, deoxygenation, isomerization, interesterification, hydroxylation, hydrolysis and saponification are disclosed. Novel oils containing fatty acid chain lengths of C8, C10, C12 or C14 are also disclosed and are useful as feedstocks in the methods of the invention.

  • ELECTRO-CHEMICAL SENSOR

    An electrochemical sensor for the presence or concentration of an analyte has at least one electrode and at least one electrochemically active species able to undergo electrochemical reaction in response to electrical potential applied to the electrode, where the said reaction is modified by the presence of the analyte. This sensor has the novel characteristic that at least one said electrochemically active species is encapsulated within polymer particles. These particles are preferably formed from an amorphous polymer with a glass transition temperature above the temperature of the fluid to which the sensor is exposed. The encapsulating polymer protects the analyte species from degradation, but a small analyte such as a hydrogen or bisulfide ion can pass through the polymer and undergo reaction at the active species.

  • Microorganism and Method for the Fermentative Production of an Organic-Chemical Compound

    The invention relates to a microorganism which produces and/or secretes an organic-chemical compound, wherein the microorganism has increased expression, compared to the particular starting strain, of one or more protein subunits of the ABC transporter having the activity of a trehalose importer, said microorganism being capable of taking up trehalose from the medium; and to a method for the production of an organic-chemical compound, using the microorganism according to the invention, wherein accumulation of trehalose in the fermentation broth is reduced or avoided.

  • CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION COATING, ARTICLE, AND METHOD

    The present invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition coating, a chemical vapor deposition article, and a chemical vapor deposition method. The coating, article, and method involve thermal decomposition of dimethylsilane to achieve desired surface properties.

  • Apparatus for Regulating the Temperature of a Biological and/or Chemical Sample and Method of Using the Same

    The invention provides an apparatus for regulating the temperature of a chemical and/or biological sample and a method of using the same. The apparatus includes at least one temperature control module. The temperature control module includes a heater, a conductor of caloric, and a temperature sensor. The heater of the temperature control module is adapted to thermally communicate with a removable substrate, on which said chemical and/or biological sample is placed, via the conductor of caloric. The temperature sensor of the temperature control module is adapted to detect and control the temperature of the substrate via the conductor of caloric. The apparatus is designed such that the substrate is situated above said temperature control module to entirely cover said temperature control module.

  • ADAPTIVE ENDPOINT METHOD FOR PAD LIFE EFFECT ON CHEMICAL MECHANICAL POLISHING

    The present disclosure provides a semiconductor manufacturing method. The method includes defining a plurality of time regions of pad life for a polishing pad in a chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) system; assigning a ladder coefficient to the polishing pad according to the plurality of time regions of pad life; defining a plurality of endpoint windows to the plurality of time regions, respectively, according to pad life effect; applying a CMP process to a wafer positioned on the polishing pad; determining a time region of a polishing signal of the wafer based on the ladder coefficient; associating one of the endpoint windows to the polishing signal according to the time region; and ending the CMP process at an endpoint determined by the endpoint window.

  • STRAINS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI MODIFIED BY METABOLIC ENGINEERING TO PRODUCE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS FROM HYDROLYZED LIGNOCELLULOSE, PENTOSES, HEXOSES AND OTHER CARBON SOURCES

    The present invention refers to the new Escherichia coli strains denominated JU15, JU15A, LL26 and MS04 and their derivatives that produce metabolites, particularly D-lactate, L-lactate or ethanol, with high yield and selectivity from a wide variety of carbon sources, such as culture media with a high xylose content (as the main carbon source) and, in particular, media formulated with hydrolyzed vegetables, such as sugarcane bagasse, agave bagasse and fast-growing grasses, and a wide variety of agricultural and industrial wastes, such as whey or forestry wastes, celluloses, grasses, agave bagasse, paper wastes, shavings and sawdust, shrubs and generally any material derived from lignocellulose. These strains use the production of the metabolite of interest (especially D-lactate, L-lactate or ethanol) as the only way of regenerating the reducing power. The invention also refers to fermentation methods to produce these metabolites from media with a diversity of carbon sources, including glucose, lactose or xylose.

  • Process for the Fermentative Preparation of Organic Chemical Compounds Using Coryneform Bacteria in which the SugR Gene is Present in Attenuated Form

    The invention relates to a recombinant coryneform bacterium which secretes an organic chemical compound and in which the sugR gene which codes for a polypeptide having the activity of an SugR regulator has been attenuated. The invention further relates to a processes for using this bacterium for the fermentative preparation of organic chemical compounds.

  • NANOMETER SIZE CHEMICAL MODIFIED MATERIALS AND USES

    There are provided ligand compositions and stationary phases comprising a polyhedral oligomeric silsequioxane moiety. Also provided are chromatographic devices comprising the stationary phases, and methods of making and using the ligands, stationary phases and chromatographic devices of the invention.

  • DETECTING CHEMICAL COMPONENTS FROM SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS

    Technologies are generally described for a porous graphene electrode material is described herein that may incorporate a three-dimensional open-cell graphene structure fabricated via chemical vapor deposition onto a metal foam. After the graphene is deposited, the metal foam may be dissolved, leaving a three-dimensional open-cell graphene structure that may include single or few layer graphene. Pseudo-capacitive materials, such as RuO.sub.2, Fe.sub.3O.sub.4, or MnO.sub.2, may be deposited within the pores of the a three-dimensional open-cell graphene structure to form the porous graphene electrode material. The porous graphene electrode material may have a specific capacitance comparable to chemically modified graphene (CMG) electrodes. The porous graphene electrode material may also have a conductivity greater than CMG electrodes of equivalent surface area. Use of the porous graphene electrode material in capacitors may result in siginificant improvements in specific power compared to CMG based capacitors.

  • NANOSTRUCTURE BASED METHODS FOR DETECTION STRUCTURE DETERMINATION SEPARATION TRANSPORT EXTRACTION AND CONTROL OFCHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL MATERIAL

    The invention describes methods that use nanostructures and quantum confinement to detect and manipulate chemical and biochemical molecules. To increase selectivity and sensitivity nanostructures are built to have the density of states similar to that in analyte that will be detected and operated. Using device that incorporates such nanostructures, measuring electrical and optical properties of nanostructures and analyte or charge and energy transfer between the nanostructures and analyte a rapid and sensitive continuous detection in fluids can be achieved. Detection can be further enhanced by controlling external environmental parameters and applying external fields. In addition to be detected analyte can be positioned, moved, separated, extracted, and controlled.

  • Catalyst Composition Comprising Shuttling Agent for Ethylene Multi-Block Copolymer Formation

    A composition for use in forming a multi-block copolymer, said copolymer containing therein two or more segments or blocks differing in chemical or physical properties, a polymerization process using the same, and the resulting polymers, wherein the composition comprises the admixture or reaction product resulting from combining: (A) a first metal complex olefin polymerization catalyst, (B) a second metal complex olefin polymerization catalyst capable of preparing polymers differing in chemical or physical properties from the polymer prepared by catalyst (A) under equivalent polymerization conditions, and (C) a chain shuttling agent.

  • Systems and Methods for Temperature Control and Heat Extraction from Waste Landfills

    The field of the invention relates to systems and methods for exchanging heat from the degradation, decomposition, and chemical/biochemical transformation of municipal, industrial, and other types of waste. In one embodiment, a heat extraction system may include a closed-loop fluid circulation piping channeled throughout at least one heat extraction well oriented throughout a waste mass. The piping is fluidly coupled to a heat exchanger. A first circulation fluid is circulated through the closed-loop circulation piping into various depths of the waste mass to transfer thermal energy between said mass and said heat exchanger. In one embodiment, the transfer of thermal energy between the waste mass and the heat exchanger is used as alternative energy method and to control at least one of shear strength, compressibility, and hydraulic conductivity of the waste mass.

  • COMPUTER METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR PREDICTING PHYSICAL PROPERTIES USING A CONCEPTUAL SEGMENT MODEL

    Method of conducting chromatography comprising controlling a retention time of one or more chemical species in a mixture by determining at least one conceptual segment of: a) the one or more chemical species, b) a mobile phase component, and c) a stationary phase component. The method further includes defining an identity and an equivalent number of each of the at least one conceptual segment.

  • Controlled Cross-Linking Processing of Proteins

    A method of forming a cross-linked protein structures includes preparing a solution of protein dissolved in a benign solvent and forming an intermediate protein structure from the solution. The intermediate protein structure can be cross-linked by providing for a specific ratio of chemical cross-linking agents to form the cross-linked protein structure. The solution can be prepared by adding a cross-linker of N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) at a ratio of two-to-one of NHS to EDC to alcohol. PBS buffer (20X) can be added to the solution until the volume ratio of PBS buffer (20X) to alcohol is about one-to-one. About 16 percent by weight of protein can be dissolved in the solution. The solution can be electrospun to form an intermediate protein structure. After a period of time, the protein structure can be cross-linked to form the cross-linked protein structure.

  • METHOD OF FABRICATING AN INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DEVICE

    A method for fabricating an integrated device is disclosed. A protective layer is formed over a gate structure when forming epitaxial (epi) features adjacent to another gate structure uncovered by the protective layer. The protective layer is thereafter removed after forming the epitaxial (epi) features. The disclosed method provides an improved method for removing the protective layer without substantial defects resulting. In an embodiment, the improved formation method is achieved by providing a protector over an oxide-base material, and then removing the protective layer using a chemical comprising hydrofluoric acid.

  • NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNAL PEPTIDES DERIVED FROM VP2 PROTEIN OF CHICKEN ANEMIA VIRUS AND USES OF SAID PEPTIDES

    Disclosed herein are isolated peptides having nuclear localization activity and derived from the VP2 protein of chicken anemia virus (CAV). The isolated peptides are proven to be useful and effective in the nuclear delivery of a selected target substance, such as proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, pharmaceutically active agents, chemical substances, etc. The isolated peptide can transport a target substance, in particular a protein, into the nucleus of a mammalian cell by forming a conjugate with the target substance, or via an expression cassette capable of expressing a fusion protein having the isolated peptide and the target protein.

  • NOVEL SEPARATORS FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS

    In an aspect, the invention provides separator systems for electrochemical systems providing electronic, mechanical and chemical properties useful for a range of electrochemical storage and conversion applications. Separator systems of some embodiments, for example, provide structural, physical and electrostatic attributes useful for managing and controlling dendrite formation in lithium and zinc based batteries. In an embodiment, for example, separator systems of the invention have a multilayer, porous geometry supporting excellent ion transport properties while at the same time providing a barrier effective to prevent dendrite initiated mechanical failure, shorting and/or thermal runaway.

  • METHOD FOR STABILIZATION OF PROTEINS USING NON-NATURAL AMINO ACIDS

    The present invention provides a method for producing modified stable polypeptides introducing at least one non-natural amino acid into the hydrophobic region of the polypeptide. The thermal and chemical stability of such polypeptides is improved compared to those properties of its corresponding wild type proteins. The invention further provides purified leucine zipper and coiled-coil proteins in which the leucine residues have been replaced with 5,5,5-trifluoroleucines, and the modified proteins so produced demonstrate increased thermal and chemical stability compared to their corresponding wild-type natural proteins.

  • LUBRICATING OIL COMPOSITION FOR CHILLER

    It is to provide a lubricating oil composition for a refrigerating machine that has a low global warming potential, and that is used for a refrigerating machine using a refrigerant having a particular structure, such as an unsaturated fluorinated hydrocarbon compound, which is a refrigerant capable of being used for existing car air conditioner system, air conditioners and the like, and that has excellent compatibility with a refrigerant and excellent thermal and chemical stability, in which the lubricating oil composition is used for a refrigerating machine using a refrigerant containing at least one fluorine-containing organic compound selected from compounds represented by the following molecular formula (A), or a combination of the fluorine-containing organic compound and a saturated fluorinated hydrocarbon compound, and contains a base oil and a sulfur-containing aromatic compound: C.sub.pO.sub.qF.sub.rR.sub.s (A), wherein R represents any one of Cl, Br, I and H; p represents an integer of from 1 to 6; q represents an integer of from 0 to 2; r represents an integer of from 1 to 14; and s represents an integer of from 0 to 13, provided that when q is 0, p is from 2 to 6, and at least one carbon-carbon unsaturated bond is contained in the molecule.

  • THERMOOXIDATIVE STABILIZATION OF POLYARYLENE SULFIDE COMPOSITIONS

    Provided are novel compositions comprising a polyarylene sulfide and at least one tin additive comprising a branched tin(II) carboxylate selected from the group consisting of Sn(O.sub.2CR).sub.2, Sn(O.sub.2CR)(O.sub.2CR'), Sn(O.sub.2CR)(O.sub.2CR''), and mixtures thereof, where the carboxylate moieties O.sub.2CR and O.sub.2CR' independently represent branched carboxylate anions and the carboxylate moiety O.sub.2CR'' represents a linear carboxylate anion. Articles comprising the novel compositions are also provided. In addition, methods to improve the thermal stability of polyarylene sulfides, and methods to improve the thermo-oxidative stability of polyarylene sulfides, through the use of the disclosed branched tin(II) carboxylates are provided. The polyarylene sulfide compositions are useful in various applications which require superior thermal resistance, chemical resistance, and electrical insulating properties.

  • SYSTEMS AND METHODS OF LASER TEXTURING OF MATERIAL SURFACES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    The surface of a material is textured and by exposing the surface to pulses from an ultrafast laser. The laser treatment causes pillars to form on the treated surface. These pillars provide for greater light absorption. Texturing and crystallization can be carried out as a single step process. The crystallization of the material provides for higher electric conductivity and changes in optical and electronic properties of the material. The method may be performed in vacuum or a gaseous environment. The gaseous environment may aid in texturing and/or modifying physical and chemical properties of the surfaces. This method may be used on various material surfaces, such as semiconductors, metals and their alloys, ceramics, polymers, glasses, composites, as well as crystalline, nanocrystalline, polycrystalline, microcrystalline, and amorphous phases.

  • CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION GRAPHENE FOAM ELECTRODES FOR PSEUDO-CAPACITORS

    Technologies are generally described for a porous graphene electrode material is described herein that may incorporate a three-dimensional open-cell graphene structure fabricated via chemical vapor deposition onto a metal foam. After the graphene is deposited, the metal foam may be dissolved, leaving a three-dimensional open-cell graphene structure that may include single or few layer graphene. Pseudo-capacitive materials, such as RuO.sub.2, Fe.sub.3O.sub.4, or MnO.sub.2, may be deposited within the pores of the a three-dimensional open-cell graphene structure to form the porous graphene electrode material. The porous graphene electrode material may have a specific capacitance comparable to chemically modified graphene (CMG) electrodes. The porous graphene electrode material may also have a conductivity greater than CMG electrodes of equivalent surface area. Use of the porous graphene electrode material in capacitors may result in siginificant improvements in specific power compared to CMG based capacitors.

  • Process for producing chemically functionalized nano graphene materials

    Provided in this invention is a process for producing chemically functionalized nano graphene materials, known as nano graphene platelets (NGPs), graphene nano sheets, or graphene nano ribbons. Subsequently, a polymer can be grafted to a functional group of the resulting functionalized graphene. In one preferred embodiment, the process comprises a step of mixing a starting nano graphene material having edges and two primary graphene surfaces, an azide or bi-radical compound, and an organic solvent in a reactor, and allowing a chemical reaction between the nano graphene material and the azide compound to proceed at a temperature for a length of time sufficient to produce the functionalized nano graphene material.

  • FLAME-RETARDANT PC/ABS COMPOSITIONS HAVING GOOD IMPACT STRENGTH, FLOWABILITY AND CHEMICAL RESISTANCE

    The present invention relates to flame resistant moulding compositions comprising polycarbonates and graft polymers which, in addition to good flow properties, exhibit good (notched) impact strength and high chemical resistance with a UL94V-0 classification at 1.5 mm. These moulding compositions are particularly suitable for thin-walled housing parts in the electrical and electronics sector.

  • ABRASIVE TOOL FOR USE AS A CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PLANARIZATION PAD CONDITIONER

    An abrasive tool including a CMP pad conditioner having a substrate including a first major surface, a second major surface opposite the first major surface, and a side surface extending between the first major surface and the second major, wherein a first layer of abrasive grains is attached to the first major surface and a second layer of abrasive grains is attached to the second major surface. The conditioner further includes a first sealing member extending in a peripheral direction along a portion of the side surface of the substrate.

  • BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESS UTILIZING CHEMOAUTOTROPHIC MICROORGANISMS FOR THE CHEMOSYTHETIC FIXATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE AND/OR OTHER INORGANIC CARBON SOURCES INTO ORGANIC COMPOUNDS, AND THE GENERATION OF ADDITIONAL USEFUL PRODUCTS

    The invention described herein presents compositions and methods for a multistep biological and chemical process for the capture and conversion of carbon dioxide and/or other forms of inorganic carbon into organic chemicals including biofuels or other useful industrial, chemical, pharmaceutical, or biomass products. One or more process steps utilizes chemoautotrophic microorganisms to fix inorganic carbon into organic compounds through chemosynthesis. An additional feature described are process steps whereby electron donors used for the chemosynthetic fixation of carbon are generated by chemical or electrochemical means, or are produced from inorganic or waste sources. An additional feature described are process steps for the recovery of useful chemicals produced by the carbon dioxide capture and conversion process, both from chemosynthetic reaction steps, as well as from non-biological reaction steps.

  • Chemical Admixtures for Hydraulic Cements

    This invention relates to a new class of chemical admixtures for hydraulic cement compositions such as pastes, mortars, grouts and concretes. The cement compositions are comprised of ordinary Portland cement, blended cements, or non-Portland cements made with Supplementary Cementitious Materials. The admixtures contain complexes of metals with derivatives of hydroxycarboxylic acids, and improve properties of cement compositions, including setting, hardness, compressive strength, shrinkage, and freeze-thaw resistance. The invention discloses a method for improving the properties of hydraulic cements by adding the disclosed chemical admixtures to cement compositions, and also discloses methods of preparing said admixtures.

  • APPARATUS FOR HIGH THROUGHPUT CHEMICAL REACTIONS

    Apparatus, systems, chips, and methods of performing a large number of simultaneous chemical reactions are provided herein. The chips of the invention comprise addressable units that can be addressed according to the temperature of the reaction to be run. The subject apparatus, systems, and chips are particularly suited for performing polymerase chain reactions on thousands of nucleic acid sequences, up to and including sequences of an entire genome of an organism of interest.

  • SYSTEM AND METHODS FOR PREPARING FREESTANDING FILMS USING LASER-ASSISTED CHEMICAL ETCH, AND FREESTANDING FILMS FORMED USING SAME

    Systems and methods for preparing freestanding films using laser-assisted chemical etch (LACE), and freestanding films formed using same, are provided. In accordance with one aspect a substrate has a surface and a portion defining an isotropically defined cavity; and a substantially continuous film is disposed at the substrate surface and spans the isotropically defined cavity. In accordance with another aspect, a substrate has a surface and a portion defining an isotropically defined cavity; and a film is disposed at the substrate surface and spans the isotropically defined cavity, the film including at least one of hafnium oxide (HfO.sub.2), diamond-like carbon, graphene, and silicon carbide (SiC) of a predetermined phase. In accordance with still another aspect, a substrate has a surface and a portion defining an isotropically defined cavity; and a multi-layer film is disposed at the substrate surface and spans the isotropically defined cavity.

  • Methods Of Modeling Physical Properties Of Chemical Mixtures And Articles Of Use

    Included are methods for modeling at least one physical property of a mixture of at least two chemical species. One or more chemical species of the mixture are approximated or represented by at least one conceptual segment. The conceptual segments are then used to compute at least one physical property of the mixture. An analysis of the computed physical properties forms a model of at least one physical property of the mixture. Also included are computer program products and computer systems for implementing the modeling methods.

  • CHEMICAL DISPERSION METHOD AND DEVICE

    A method of semiconductor fabrication including providing a semiconductor wafer and dispensing a first chemical spray onto the wafer using a first nozzle and dispensing a second chemical spray using a second nozzle onto the wafer. These dispensing may be performed simultaneously. The method may further include moving the first and second nozzle. The first and second nozzle may provide the first and second chemical spray having at least one different property. For example, different chemical compositions, concentrations, temperatures, angles of dispensing, or flow rate. A chemical dispersion apparatus providing two nozzles which are operable to be separately controlled is also provided.

  • SITE-SPECIFIC CHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF PROTEINS AT THEIR N-TERMINI, ENABLING THE FORMATION OF HOMOGENEOUS ADDUCTS

    Site-specific modifications of proteins at their N-termini are provided. In particular, a chemical modification of proteins at their N-termini via a transamination reaction to form homogeneous adducts such as, the corresponding oxime derivatives is provided. Methods of making and using the adducts in radio-labelling, molecular imaging applications, and treatment of disorders such as cancer, Crohn's disease, arthritis, atherothrombosis and plaque rupture are also provided.

  • CONTAINMENT VESSEL AND SCALE-UP METHOD FOR CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    A process container for use in a chemical process comprising two planar faces parallel to each other wherein the edges of the faces are joined together by adjacent curved bullnose portions. The process of scaling up a chemical process operation from a small scale apparatus to a large scale unit comprising the steps of: maintaining the diameter of the small scale apparatus as a critical dimension; inserting a rectangularly cross-sectioned extension between two half-cylindrically shaped ends corresponding to halves of the apparatus.

  • STABILIZED CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

    Stabilized liquid agrochemical compositions are provided that comprise flowable, aqueous dispersion concentrates comprising a) a continuous aqueous liquid phase; b) at least one dispersed, solid phase comprising a dispersion of polymer particles having a mean particle size of at least one micron, wherein the outside surfaces of the particles comprise a colloidal solid material and wherein the particles have at least one agrochemically active ingredient distributed therein, optionally a non-porous particulate mineral that acts as a diffusion barrier to slow the release of the active ingredient, and optionally at least one non-cross-linkable mobile chemical such that the extraction of this chemical from the disperse phase renders it porous in a manner that allows the active ingredient to diffuse out. The colloidal solid is used to stabilize the polymenzable resin in an emulsion state during preparation.

  • Chemical Ionization Reaction or Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry

    A system and methods are described for generating reagent ions and product ions for use in a mass spectrometry system. Applications for the system and method are also disclosed for detecting volatile organic compounds in trace concentrations. A microwave or high-frequency RF energy source ionizes particles of a reagent vapor to form reagent ions. The reagent ions enter a chamber, such as a drift chamber, to interact with a fluid sample. An electric field directs the reagent ions and facilitates an interaction with the fluid sample to form product ions. The reagent ions and product ions then exit the chamber under the influence of an electric field for detection by a mass spectrometer module. The system includes various control modules for setting values of system parameters and analysis modules for detection of mass and peak intensity values for ion species during spectrometry and faults within the system.

  • Controlling Chemical Reactions by Spectral Chemistry and Spectral Conditioning

    This invention relates to novel methods for affecting, controlling and/or directing various reactions and/or reaction pathways or systems by exposing one or more components in a holoreaction system to at least one spectral energy pattern. In a first aspect of the invention, at least one spectral energy pattern can be applied to a reaction system. In a second aspect of the invention, at least one spectral energy conditioning pattern can be applied to a conditioning reaction system. The spectral energy conditioning pattern can, for example, be applied at a separate location from the reaction vessel (e.g., in a conditioning reaction vessel) or can be applied in (or to) the reaction vessel, but prior to other reaction system participants being introduced into the reaction vessel. The techniques of the present invention are applicable to inorganic reactions, organic reactions, biologic reactions and/or phase or structure change reactions. The invention specifically discloses different means for achieving the control of energy dynamics (e.g., matching or non-matching) between, for example, applied energy and matter (e.g., solids, liquids, gases, plasmas and/or combinations or portions thereof), to achieve (or to prevent) and/or increase energy transfer to, for example, at least one participant (or at least one conditionable participant) in a holoreaction system by taking into account various energy considerations in the holoreaction system. The invention also discloses an approach for designing or determining appropriate physical catalyst(s) to be used in a holoreaction system. The techniques of the present invention use targeted spectral energies to control transformation of matter, and/or reaction system dynamics, such as chemical reactions, phase changes, and material properties.

  • Biological and Chemical Process Utilizing Chemoautotrophic Microorganisms

    Methods and systems to achieve clean fuel processing systems in which carbon dioxide emissions (1) from sources (2) may be processed in at least one processing reactor (4) containing a plurality of chemoautotrophic bacteria (5) which can convert the carbon dioxide emissions into biomass (6) which may then be used for various products (21) such as biofuels, fertilizer, feedstock, or the like. Sulfate reducing bacteria (13) may be used to supply sulfur containing compounds to the chemoautotrophic bacteria (5).

  • TOOL FOR USE WITH DUAL-SIDED CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PLANARIZATION PAD CONDITIONER

    A tool includes a holder configured to couple to a dual-sided chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) pad conditioner. The holder has a magnetic material, a first magnetic field strength (H1) at a first face, and a second magnetic field strength (H2) at a second face opposite the first face. The first magnetic field strength (H1) is different than the second magnetic field strength (H2).

  • CHEMICAL MECHANICAL POLISHING PAD AND CHEMICAL MECHANICAL POLISHING METHOD USING SAME

    A chemical mechanical polishing pad includes a polishing layer that is formed of a composition that includes a polyurethane, the polishing layer having a specific gravity of 1.1 to 1.3 and a thermal conductivity of 0.2 W/mK or more.

  • Combination, Method, and Composition for Chemical Mechanical Planarization of a Tungsten-Containing Substrate

    A combination, composition and associated method for chemical mechanical planarization of a tungsten-containing substrate are described herein which afford tunability of tungsten/dielectric selectivity and low selectivity for tungsten removal in relation to dielectric material. Removal rates for both tungsten and dielectric are high and stability of the slurry (e.g., with respect to pH drift over time) is high.

  • Combination, Method, and Composition for Chemical Mechanical Planarization of a Tungsten-Containing Substrate

    A combination, composition and associated method for chemical mechanical planarization of a tungsten-containing substrate are described herein which afford tunability of tungsten/dielectric selectivity and low selectivity for tungsten removal in relation to dielectric material. Removal rates for both tungsten and dielectric are high and stability of the slurry (e.g., with respect to pH drift over time) is high.

  • BIOFUEL AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTION BY RECOMBINANT MICROORGANISMS VIA FERMENTATION OF PROTEINACEOUS BIOMASS

    Provided herein are metabolically modified microorganisms characterized by having an increased keto-acid flux when compared with the wild-type organism and comprising at least one polynucleotide encoding an enzyme that when expressed results in the production of a greater quantity of a chemical product when compared with the wild-type organism. The recombinant microorganisms are useful for producing a large number of chemical compositions from various nitrogen containing biomass compositions and other carbon sources. More specifically, provided herein are methods of producing alcohols, acetaldehyde, acetate, isobutyraldehyde, isobutyric acid, n-butyraldehyde, n-butyric acid, 2-methyl-1-butyraldehyde, 2-methyl-1-butyric acid, 3-methyl-1-butyraldehyde, 3-methyl-1-butyric acid, ammonia, ammonium, amino acids, 2,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 2-methyl-1,4-butanediol, 2-methyl-1,4-butanediamine, isobutene, itaconate, acetoin, acetone, isobutene, 1,5-diaminopentane, L-lactic acid, D-lactic acid, shikimic acid, mevalonate, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), isoprenoids, fatty acids, homoalanine, 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA), succinic acid, malic acid, citric acid, adipic acid, p-hydroxy-cinnamic acid, tetrahydrofuran, 3-methyl-tetrahydrofuran, gamma-butyrolactone, pyrrolidinone, n-methylpyrrolidone, aspartic acid, lysine, cadeverine, 2-ketoadipic acid, and/or S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) from a suitable nitrogen rich biomass.

  • CONTACT RELEASE CAPSULE USEFUL FOR CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PLANARIZATION SLURRY

    The invention relates to a contact release capsule comprising a particle, a chemical payload, and a polymer coating, wherein the particle is impregnated with the chemical payload, and the chemical payload is held inside the particle by the polymer coating until the contact release capsule contacts a surface and a shearing force removes the polymer coating allowing the chemical payload to release outside the particle. The contact release capsule is useful in chemical mechanical planarization slurries. Particularly, the contact release capsule may comprise a glycine impregnated silica nanoparticle coated with a polymer, wherein the contact release capsule is dispersed in an aqueous solution and used in the copper chemical mechanical planarization process. Use of the contact release capsule in a slurry for copper chemical mechanical planarization may significantly improve planarization efficiency, decrease unwanted etching and corrosion, and improve dispersion stability.

  • RETAINING RING FOR CHEMICAL MECHANICAL POLISHING

    A carrier head for a chemical mechanical polishing apparatus includes a retaining ring having a flexible lower portion and a rigid upper portion.

  • METHOD, APPARATUS AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS FOR TREATING PETROLEUM EQUIPMENT

    The present invention provides a method, an apparatus and chemical products for treating petroleum equipment wherein a fluid is flowing, preferably of the hydrocarbon type, and wherein treating is performed by establishing a closed or semi-closed flow circulation loop, during the normal production operations of the equipment. The treatment can refer to the cleaning of equipment, to yield improvement as compared to normal run conditions and/or to a reduction of coke formation and/or to coke removal on catalysts.

  • USE OF OXYHYDROGEN MICROORGANISMS FOR NON-PHOTOSYNTHETIC CARBON CAPTURE AND CONVERSION OF INORGANIC AND/OR C1 CARBON SOURCES INTO USEFUL ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    Compositions and methods for a hybrid biological and chemical process that captures and converts carbon dioxide and/or other forms of inorganic carbon and/or C1 carbon sources including but not limited to carbon monoxide, methane, methanol, formate, or formic acid, and/or mixtures containing C1 chemicals including but not limited to various syngas compositions, into organic chemicals including biofuels or other valuable biomass,chemical, industrial, or pharmaceutical products are provided. The present invention, in certain embodiments, fixes inorganic carbon or C1 carbon sources into longer carbon chain organic chemicals by utilizing microorganisms capable of performing the oxyhydrogen reaction and the autotrophic fixation of CO.sub.2 in one or more steps of the process.

  • METHODS FOR PRODUCING 3-HYDROXYPROPIONIC ACID AND OTHER PRODUCTS

    This invention relates to metabolically engineered microorganism strains, such as bacterial strains, in which there is an increased utilization of malonyl-CoA for production of a chemical product, which includes 3-hydroxypropionic acid.

  • PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF PARA-XYLENE

    A reforming process using a medium pore zeolite under conditions to facilitate the conversion of C.sub.8 paraffinic compounds to para-xylene is provided. Para-xylene is produced at greater than thermodynamic equilibrium concentrations using the process.

  • Producing Aqueous Solutions of Vinyllactam Polymers and Powders Thereof

    Described is a process for producing aqueous solutions of vinyllactam polymers and solids obtainable therefrom by drying, especially polyvinylpyrrolidone, said process comprising using one or more sulfur components selected from the group consisting of sulfur dioxide, sulfurous acid and one or more salts of sulfurous acid, to reduce residual monomer. Also described are vinyllactam polymers obtainable by the process which have good stability in storage, the use of these vinyllactam polymers, and articles of manufacture and preparations comprising these vinyllactam polymers or obtained by use thereof.

  • METHOD FOR RECOVERING TRANSITION METAL TETRAHALIDE AND HYDROCARBONS FROM A WASTE STREAM

    The present invention provides a process for recovering transition metal tetrahalides from a waste stream coming from a catalyst manufacturing process by (a) establishing a mixed stream comprising transition metal tetrahalide and transition metal alkoxyhalides; (b) forming a falling liquid film from the mixed stream of step (a) at a temperature of from 25 to 85.degree. C. and an absolute pressure of from 0.05 to 0.6 bar; and (c) establishing from the film of step (b) a first vapour stream containing from 90 to 100% of recoverable components and a second liquid stream containing about 10 to 80% of titanium haloalkoxides.