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Inventi Rapid - Combustion

Patent Watch

  • METHOD AND DEVICE FOR DETECTING LEAKS IN THE INTAKE TRACT OF AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    A method for detecting a leak in an intake tract of an internal combustion engine including the following steps: operating the internal combustion engine at a first operating point having a rotational speed and a first pressure difference between the ambient pressure and the pressure in the intake tract of the internal combustion engine; computing a first expected mass flow into the intake tract; measuring a first mass flow into the intake tract and computing a difference between the measured first mass flow and the first expected mass flow; operating the internal combustion engine at a second operating point having the same rotational speed and a second pressure difference between the ambient pressure and the pressure in the intake tract of the internal combustion engine, the second pressure difference being different from the first pressure difference; computing a second expected mass flow into the intake tract; measuring a second mass flow into the intake tract and computing the difference between the measured second mass flow and the second expected mass flow; and comparing the mass flow differences ascertained at the first and at the second operating point.

  • METHOD FOR DETERMINING A VISCOSITY PARAMETER OF A MOTOR OIL AS WELL AS A CONTROL DEVICE FOR AN ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROL

    A method for determining a viscosity parameter of a motor oil in an internal combustion engine, wherein a plurality of operating parameters characterizing an operating state of the internal combustion engine are detected and/or determined for an electronic engine control. Several parameters allowing at least a rough prediction on the viscosity of the motor oil are each evaluated for an individual prediction on the viscosity of the motor oil at different times from these operating parameters, and changes in the individual predictions for comparable working points of the internal combustion engine relative to a state of new motor oil are detected. The viscosity parameter is determined from the changes in the several individual predictions. A corresponding control device for the electronic engine control is also provided.

  • IGNITION TIMING CONTROL SYSTEM FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    An ignition timing control system for an internal combustion engine, for controlling an ignition timing of the engine, is provided. A charging efficiency of the engine is calculated according to the intake air flow rate and the engine rotational speed which are detected, and a knock limit ignition timing is calculated according to the engine rotational speed and the charging efficiency. A knock correction value is calculated according to the knocking detection result by a knock sensor, and a learning parameter table, in which first and second learning parameters are set, is updated based on the engine rotational speed and the knock correction value when the knocking is detected. The learning parameter table is retrieved according to the engine rotational speed, to calculate the first and second learning parameters. Each-cylinder correction values are calculated corresponding respectively to a plurality of cylinders of the engine using the charging efficiency, the first learning parameter, and the second learning parameter and the ignition timing of the engine is controlled using the knock limit ignition timing and the each-cylinder correction value.

  • CONTROLLER OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    An ECU (13) includes: throttle-valve opening-degree control means (131) for controlling an intake airflow rate; target output-torque calculating means (132) for calculating a target output torque from an operating state of an engine (1) and an operation of an accelerator performed by a driver; target ignition-timing calculating means (133) for calculating target ignition timing based on the operating state of the engine (1); actual output-torque calculating means (134) for calculating an actual output torque of the engine (1) based on an engine rpm, a charging efficiency, the target ignition timing, an air-fuel ratio, and a total heating value of a fuel; and target intake-air quantity calculating means (135) for calculating a charging efficiency-to-torque conversion factor based on the charging efficiency and the actual output torque, and calculating a target charging efficiency based on the target output torque and the charging efficiency-to-torque conversion factor to calculate a target intake air quantity based on the target charging efficiency. Torque control for the engine is performed while the fuel properties are loaded as information, and hence an engine control amount for realizing the target output torque is realized with high accuracy.

  • METHOD FOR ESTIMATING AMOUNT OF HEAT RECEIVED BY REFRIGERANT AND CONTROLLER

    A method for estimating the amount of heat received by refrigerant by an ECU comprises a step for detecting an estimation factor including the intake air amount of an internal combustion engine, and a step for estimating the amount of heat received from exhaust gas by cooling water of the internal combustion engine in a water-cooled exhaust manifold based on a detected estimation factor. Preferably, the estimation factor further includes at least any one of the cooling water temperature, the intake air temperature of the internal combustion engine the number of revolutions of the internal combustion engine.

  • MONITORING APPARATUS FOR A MULTI-CYLINDER INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    A monitoring apparatus including a catalytic converter, an upstream air-fuel ratio sensor, and a downstream air-fuel ratio sensor; calculates a sub feedback amount to have an air-fuel ratio represented based on an output value of the downstream air-fuel ratio sensor coincide with a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio; and controls an fuel injection amount based on an output value of the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor and the sub feedback amount, in such a manner that an air-fuel ratio of a mixture supplied to an engine coincides with the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio.

  • CONTROL DEVICE FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND MEASURING DEVICE OF MASS FLOW RATE OF NOx RECIRCULATED TO INTAKE PASSAGE WITH BLOWBY GAS

    A mass flow rate of NOx which is recirculated to an intake passage with a blowby gas is obtained with high precision, and based on the result, a state of an internal combustion engine can be accurately diagnosed. A control device for an internal combustion engine of the present invention measures a NOx concentration in an intake passage downstream from a position where the blowby gas is recirculated, and similarly measures an oxygen concentration in the intake passage downstream from the aforesaid position. Further, the control device measures a mass flow rate of fresh air taken into the intake passage. The control device calculates a mass flow rate of the blowby gas recirculated to the intake passage from the oxygen concentration and the mass flow rate of the fresh air. Next, the control device calculates a mass flow rate of all gases in the intake passage from the mass flow rate of the fresh air and the mass flow rate of the blowby gas. Subsequently, the control device calculates the mass flow rate of NOx in the aforesaid intake passage from the mass flow rate of all the gases and the NOx concentration. The present control device diagnoses the state of the internal combustion engine based on the mass flow rate of NOx thus calculated.

  • Method and Device for Managing the Power From A Power Train of A Hybrid Motor Vehicle

    The invention relates to a method and a device for managing the power from a power train of a hybrid motor vehicle, taking into account one or more operational parameters of at least one element of said power train. The method is characterised in that the determination of the consumption gain (6) is based on one or more operational parameters of at least one or part of said elements (1 to 5) in the power train. Advantageously, said operational parameter is the respective temperature of at least one or part of the elements (1 to 5) in the power train. The invention is suitable for use in the field of motor vehicles.

  • METHOD FOR OPERATING A DRIVE TRAIN

    A method of operating a drive train of a motor vehicle which includes at least an electric machine, as a drive aggregate, and a transmission which is positioned between the drive aggregate and an output, and a starting element positioned between the electric machine and the transmission. For and during the start, an expected drive resistance is calculated and then, if the expected drive resistance is lower than a first threshold value, starting takes place with the starting element engaged via the electric machine from a standstill, and if the expected drive resistance is larger than the first threshold value, starting takes place with the starting element disengaged, the electric machine is operated with a defined machine rotational speed in a rotation speed control mode, and thereafter, the starting element is engaged such that it transfers starting torque which depends on the a driver request.

  • REMOTE TRIGGER OF AN ALTERNATE ENERGY SOURCE TO POWER A VEHICLE SYSTEM

    The described method and system improve electric-power driving range for electric vehicles, i.e., electric-only, hybrid electric, and other vehicles that draw electrical power from an on-board storage system for propulsion and auxiliary functions such as HVAC, defroster, defogger, seat heaters, seat coolers, etc. The described system uses an alternate energy source off-board of the vehicle, e.g., the municipal power grid, to power and run vehicle systems while the vehicle is plugged into the grid. The system also provides the user with the ability to remotely choose via an electronic medium or telematics system among multiple available alternate sources of energy to power vehicle systems. The user may remotely trigger the use of the selected source and may also remotely activate and deactivate vehicle systems powered by the alternative energy source.

  • Method of detecting a liquid fuel leak in a gas turbine

    The invention relates to a method of detecting the presence of a liquid fuel leak in a gas turbine (1). During this method: a reference value (27, 37) is determined for at least a first operating parameter of the turbine, a value (29, 39) of the said operating parameter is measured during a start-up phase of the turbine, the measurement value and the reference value are compared, whether a first anomaly (13, 41) is present is identified, an alert notification (33, 43) is generated if a first anomaly (31, 41) is detected for the first parameter, and in parallel shutdown of the turbine (35, 45) is triggered if a second anomaly (34, 44) is detected for a second parameter. The invention also relates to a device for detecting a liquid fuel leak in a gas turbine, employing such a method.

  • FIRE RESISTANT MATERIAL

    The present invention relates to inorganic-organic hybrids (IOHs), methods for their preparation and their use as fire resistant materials or components of fire resistant materials. More specifically, the invention relates to polyamide fire resistant formulations containing IOHs which have application in the production of fire resistant articles or parts thereof for use in the transportation, building, construction and electrical or optical industries.

  • METHOD FOR PROCESSING A SIGNAL FROM A FLOW METER FOR MEASURING A GAS FLOW IN AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    A method for processing a signal from a flow meter for measuring a gas flow in an internal combustion engine includes processing the signal according to a first logic when the engine operates in a first intake mode and processing the signal according to a second logic when the engine operates in a second intake mode. The first intake mode includes the activation of a high-pressure EGR valve. The second intake mode includes the activation of a low-pressure EGR valve.

  • Internal Combustion Engine with Cylinders that can be De-Activated, with Exhaust Gas Recirculation by Variable Control of the Intake Valves, and Method for Controlling an Internal Combustion Engine

    A multi-cylinder internal combustion engine is provided with a system for the variable actuation of the intake valves. At least one part of the engine cylinders is deactivated, cutting off fuel supply to said cylinders, under operating conditions that do not require the maximum power of the engine and in which one wants to reduce fuel consumption. The intake valves of the deactivated cylinders are kept at least partly open during at least one part of the discharge stages in the deactivated cylinders, hence, in the deactivated cylinders, part of the burnt gases generated during the operation prior to the deactivation flows into the respective intake conduits during the discharge stage of each cylinder. The intake valves are closed after the discharge stage. The intake valves of the deactivated cylinders are further kept closed during the compression and expansion stages in each deactivated cylinder.

  • CONTROL APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE INCLUDING VARIABLE VALVE OPERATING MECHANISM

    Provided is a control apparatus, which can successfully suppress that deterioration of combustion is caused in response to inflow of a large amount of blow-by gas to cylinders at the time of a valve return from a valve stop state in an internal combustion engine including a positive crankcase ventilation system and a variable valve operating mechanism that is capable of stopping at least one valve of an intake valve and exhaust valve in a closed state. A valve stop control is performed which stops the intake valve and exhaust valve in a closed state when a fuel cut of the internal combustion engine is executed. A deviation amount .DELTA.A/F between a predetermined target air fuel ratio and an actual air fuel ratio detected by an A/F sensor at the time of a valve return is obtained. A correction is performed to decrease a fuel injection amount by a fuel amount equivalent to the deviation amount .DELTA.A/F at the time of the subsequent valve returns.

  • COMBUSTION APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR COMBUSTION CONTROL

    A combustion apparatus (water heater) includes a combustion means (burner) combusting fuel, at least two flame detecting means (flame rods) detecting whether there is a flame or not in the combustion means, a determination unit (control device) determining whether or not to be a misfire based on detected results of the flame detecting means, and a control unit (control device) stopping supply of the fuel to the combustion means in response to a determined result of the determination unit.

  • EGR CONTROL APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    An EGR control apparatus for an internal combustion engine, which is capable of accurately controlling an inert gas amount and an inert gas ratio of two types of EGR gas supplied to cylinders of the engine via two paths different from each other, thereby making it possible to ensure a stable combustion state and reduced exhaust emissions. The EGR control apparatus includes a low-pressure EGR device, a high-pressure EGR device, and an ECU. The ECU calculates a target low-pressure opening, calculates an estimated value of an in-cylinder low-pressure inert gas flow rate, which is the estimated value of an inert gas amount included in low-pressure EGR gas supplied to the cylinders via an intake passage, calculates a target high-pressure opening using the estimated value, and controls low-pressure and high-pressure EGR control valves, using the target low-pressure opening and the target high-pressure opening.

  • Method for controlling an engine

    A method for reducing a temperature of an engine component is disclosed. In one example, an air-fuel ratio provided to an engine is adjusted to reduce a temperature of an engine component. The approach may be useful for controlling temperature and emissions from a turbocharged engine.

  • Method for controlling an engine

    A method for reducing a temperature of an engine component is disclosed. In one example, an air-fuel ratio provided to an engine is adjusted to reduce a temperature of an engine component. The approach may be useful for controlling temperature and emissions from a turbocharged engine.

  • Cruise control and active fuel management (AFM) interaction

    A method and controller for operating cruise control in a vehicle having an engine with active fuel management (AFM) is provided. Adaptive scaler values can be determined based on a cylinder deactivation signal and calibrated scaler values. Cruise control commands can be calculated based on the adaptive scaler values. A speed of the vehicle can be controlled based on the cruise control commands.

  • Late lean injection with adjustable air splits

    A gas turbine engine is provided and includes a combustor having a first interior in which a first fuel is combustible, a turbine into which products of at least the combustion of the first fuel are receivable, a transition zone, including a second interior in which a second fuel and the products of the combustion of the first fuel are combustible, a plurality of fuel injectors which are configured to supply the second fuel to the second interior in any one of a single axial stage, multiple axial stages, a single axial circumferential stage and multiple axial circumferential stages, a compressor, by which air is supplied to the first and second interiors for the combustion therein, and a control system configured to control relative amounts of the air to the first and second interiors and relative amounts of the first and second fuels supplied to the first and second interiors.

  • Model based vehicle overspeed algorithm

    A system for limiting the speed of a vehicle includes a first module that generates a first torque signal based on a vehicle speed, a second module that generates a second torque signal based on a difference between a predetermined vehicle speed limit and the vehicle speed, and a third module that generates an output torque signal based on the first and second torque signals. The output torque signal is adapted to control the output torque of a motor.

  • Vehicle driving force control device

    A vehicle driving force control device including an input shaft rotation number sensor which detects a transmission input shaft rotation number to be input from an engine to an automatic transmission, an accelerator opening sensor which detects accelerator opening, a TCU for calculating a required output of the automatic transmission based on the transmission input shaft rotation number and the accelerator opening, and an electronic control unit which controls the engine and the automatic transmission based on the required output. The TCU sets the required output to a constant value regardless of the transmission input shaft rotation number when the accelerator opening is not larger than a predetermined value, and sets to increase or decrease the required output according to increase and decrease of the transmission input shaft rotation number when the accelerator opening is larger than the predetermined value.

  • Method for controlling a powertrain system based upon energy storage device temperature

    A powertrain system includes an engine coupled to an input member of a transmission device operative to transmit torque between the input member and a torque machine and an output member. The torque machine is connected to an energy storage device. A method for controlling a powertrain system includes monitoring a temperature of the energy storage device, selecting a candidate powertrain system operating point, determining an output power from the energy storage device associated with the candidate powertrain system operating point, determining a power loss for operating the powertrain system at the candidate powertrain system operating point, and determining operating costs for operating the powertrain system at the candidate powertrain system operating point associated with the power loss and based upon the temperature of the energy storage device.

  • Water heater and method of controlling the same

    A water heater including a water inlet line having an inlet opening that introduces cold water to a tank, a water outlet line having an outlet opening that withdraws heated water from the tank, and a heating element. The water heater further includes a control circuit. The heating element can be an electrical resistance heating element, a gas heating element, or a combination thereof. In one construction, the gas heating element includes a first combustive section and a second combustive section separately controlled from the first combustive section.

  • Portable electricity generator

    An apparatus for producing electricity includes an elongated body and an electricity generating device operatively connected to the elongated body. A drive shaft is positioned along the elongated body, the drive shaft having an input and an output. A driven shaft is positioned along the elongated body and spaced apart from the drive shaft, the driven shaft having an input and an output, the output driving the electricity generating device. There is a first mechanical linkage between the drive shaft and the driven shaft. A method of producing electricity includes positioning a combustion engine powered vehicle over at least a portion of the apparatus, mechanically linking an output shaft of the combustion engine powered device to the input of the drive shaft, and powering the electricity generating device with the combustion engine powered vehicle.

  • Aromatic polycarbonate resin composition and manufacturing process thereof

    A resin composition consisting of: (1) 100 parts by weight of an aromatic polycarbonate resin; (2) 0.008 to 0.13 part by weight of an alkali metal salt of a perfluoroalkylsulfonic acid having a fluoride ion content measured by ion chromatography of 0.2 to 1 ppm in terms of weight based on the weight of component B; and (3) 0.01 to 5 parts by weight of silicone having a Si--H group and a phenyl group. A process of manufacturing the resin composition and a method of preventing the melt dripping during combustion of the resin composition. The flame retardancy of the above aromatic polycarbonate resin composition comprising the fluorine-containing organic metal salt compound is improved.

  • Power generating plant

    Coal is reacted in a furnace 22 to obtain a coal gasification gas. The coal gasification gas is cooled by a gas cooler 23, passed through a porous filter 24, and desulfurized by a desulfurizer 25 to produce a CO-containing gas as an anode. The CO gas-containing gas is subjected to an exothermic reaction in a shift reactor 26 to form H.sub.2 and CO.sub.2, and the anode gas containing H.sub.2 is supplied to an anode 7 of MCFC 2. Thus, in the absence of an extra heat source and a heat exchange source, a desired anode gas is obtained from the coal gasification gas, and with heat buildup of the MCFC 2 being inhibited and its performance being maintained, reduction of CO.sub.2 is taken into consideration. A power generating plant equipped with the MCFC 2 capable of using a coal gasification fuel substantially containing a CO gas is thus achieved.

  • Mixed particles and honeycomb structure for gas conversion apparatus

    Mixed particles including noble metal particles of a noble metal, first particles of one or more metal oxides, and second particles of a metal oxide. The first particles of one or more metal oxides are selected from Al.sub.2O.sub.3, SiO.sub.2, ZrO.sub.2 and TiO.sub.2. The second particles of a metal oxide have a larger adsorptive interaction with the noble metal of the noble metal particles as compared with the metal oxide of the first particles. The noble metal particles are carried by the second particles in a larger proportion than by the first particles.

  • WARM-UP CONTROL APPARATUS FOR GENERAL-PURPOSE ENGINE

    In an apparatus for controlling warm-up operation of a general-purpose internal combustion engine having a throttle valve installed in an air intake pipe and connectable to an operating machine to be used as a prime mover of the machine, it is configured to calculate a basic fuel injection amount based on an engine speed and a throttle opening and control engine warm-up operation by calculating a warm-up time fuel injection amount by correcting the calculated basic fuel injection amount based on one of a temperature change amount of a spark plug seat of the engine, the throttle opening and an output of the operating machine and injecting fuel from an injector by the calculated warm-up time fuel injection amount. With this, it becomes possible to calculate a fuel injection amount suitable for the engine warm-up condition by using an appropriate parameter in place of the lubricating oil temperature.

  • CONTROL DEVICE FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    In a control device for an internal combustion engine according to the present embodiment, the control device includes: cooling units arranged on a path where a coolant is circulated, and cooling an exhaust gas of an engine with the coolant flowing through the cooling units; an atmospheric pressure sensor detecting an atmosphere pressure; and ECUs deciding whether or not to perform an exhaust gas temperature control for suppressing a temperature of the exhaust gas based on whether or not a heat quantity is more than a decision value, and correcting the decision value to be lower as the atmosphere pressure is lower.

  • Fuel Efficient Crane System

    A system and method for efficiently regulating the fuel consumption of a variable speed combustion engine used to control loads such as a hoist motor in a mobile gantry crane based on load motor speed commands issued by a crane operator. The system and method can rely on a programmable logic controller to issue engine fuel commands to regulate engine speed based on interpolations derived from data representing the relationship between load motor voltage and engine speed and data representing the relationship between engine speed and engine power capacity. The method may also be used in modified form by combustion engines which need digital fixed speed commands.

  • DRIVING CONTROL APPARATUS AND METHOD OF HYBRID VEHICLE

    A driving control apparatus of a hybrid vehicle is provided with: an internal combustion engine, a power dividing mechanism generator; an electric motor capable of outputting power according to electric power supplied from at least one of the generator and a storage battery, to a drive shaft; a changing device capable of changing an operating state of the generator, from one state to the other state out of a first state in which the rotating shaft of the generator can rotate and a second state in which a rotating shaft of the generator is fixed in a stop state; and a controlling device for controlling the changing device to change the operating state of the generator from the one state to the other state in a predetermined period in which the rotating shaft of the generator does not rotate.

  • Composition containing carbon nanotubes, catalyst for producing carbon nanotubes, and aqueous dispersion of carbon nanotubes

    Disclosed is a composition containing carbon nanotubes which meets all of the following conditions (1) to (4). (1) When observed via transmission electron microscopy, at least 50 out of every 100 carbon nanotubes are double-walled carbon nanotubes. (2) The carbon nanotubes have an average outer diameter in the range of 1.0 to 3.0 nm. (3) During thermogravimetric analysis under atmosphere at a temperature increase rate of 10.degree. C./minute, a high temperaturecombustion peak is at 700 to 850.degree. C., and the relationship between low temperature weight loss (TG(L)) and high temperature weight loss (TG(H)) is TG(H)/(TG(L)+TG(H)).gtoreq.0.75. (4) The composition containing carbon nanotubes has a volume resistance value between 1.0.times.10.sup.-2 .OMEGA.cm and 1.0.times.10.sup.-4 .OMEGA.cm, inclusive. The disclosed composition containing carbon nanotubes primarily has double-walled carbon nanotubes with high electrical conductivity and high heat resistance.

  • METHOD FOR OPERATING A DRIVE TRAIN

    A method of operating a drive-train of a motor vehicle which comprises a hybrid drive with a combustion engine and an electric machine, a clutch connected between the combustion engine and the electric machine, a transmission connected between the electric machine and a drive output, and either a primary retarder connected between the electric machine and the transmission or a secondary retarder connected between the transmission and the drive output. In order to warm up hydraulic oil, when the clutch between the combustion engine and the electric machine is disengaged and a transmission gear is engaged, a braking torque is produced by either the primary or secondary retarder, in the drive-train, and the electric machine is operated in a torque-controlled manner such that it delivers a torque equal to the sum of a target torque determined in accordance with the driver's wish and the braking torque produced by either the primary or secondary retarder.

  • DEVICE FOR THE CALIBRATION OF A GAS BURNER REGULATING SYSTEM

    Method for the calibration of a gas burner regulating system using a sensor (28) which is associated with the exhaust gas (29) discharged from the gas burner (10) and measures the concentration of at least one combustible or oxidizable constituent in the exhaust gas, wherein for calibration, starting from a relatively lean gas-combustion-air mixture (12) which is fed to the gas burner (10) for combustion, the gas-combustion-air mixture (12) may be enriched, specifically until the measurement signal which is provided by the sensor (28) first increases and then reduces to approximately zero, wherein the gas-combustion-air mixture (12), in which the measurement signal which is provided by the sensor (28) amounts to approximately zero, is defined as a gas-combustion-air mixture (12) with a stoichiometric combustion air ratio of .lamda.=1, and wherein starting from this gas-combustion-air mixture (12) the gas-combustion-air mixture may be enleaned to a desired combustion air ratio of .lamda.>1.

  • Method and Device for Optimizing Combustion in a Power Plant

    Methods and devices for optimizing combustion of fuel in a combustion chamber of a power plant are provided. A real concentration distribution of a material and/or a real temperature distribution in the combustion chamber is measured in at least one dimension. The real concentration distribution and/or temperature distribution is evaluated and a combustion of fuel is controlled such that a symmetric concentration distribution and/or temperature distribution in the at least one dimension arises. During the evaluation at least one characteristic of the symmetry of the real concentration distribution and/or temperature distribution is determined, and during the controlling at least one control parameter is changed depending on the at least one characteristic.

  • APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR MIXING FUEL IN A GAS TURBINE NOZZLE

    A nozzle includes a fuel plenum and an air plenum downstream of the fuel plenum. Fuel channels radially outward of an axial centerline of the nozzle include an inlet and an outlet downstream of the inlet. A fuel port in the fuel channels provides fluid communication between the fuel plenum and the fuel channels. An air port in the fuel channels downstream of the fuel port provides fluid communication between the air plenum and the fuel channels. A method for mixing fuel and air in a nozzle prior to combustion includes flowing fuel to a fuel plenum and flowing air to an air plenum downstream of the fuel plenum. The method further includes injecting fuel from the fuel plenum through fuel ports in fuel channels and injecting air from the air plenum through air ports in the fuel channels.

  • HYDROGEN PURIFICATION MEMBRANES, COMPONENTS AND FUEL PROCESSING SYSTEMS CONTAINING THE SAME

    Hydrogen-producing fuel processing systems, hydrogen purification membranes, hydrogen purification devices, fuel processing and fuel cell systems that include hydrogen purification devices, and methods for operating the same. In some embodiments, operation of the fuel processing system is initiated by heating at least the reforming region of the fuel processing system to at least a selected hydrogen-producing operating temperature. In some embodiments, an electric heater is utilized to perform this initial heating. In some embodiments, use of the electric heater is discontinued after startup, and a burner or other combustion-based heating assembly combusts a fuel to heat at least the hydrogen producing region, such as due to the reforming region utilizing an endothermic catalytic reaction to produce hydrogen gas.

  • PHYSICAL SEPARATION AND SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE FROM THE EXHAUST GASES OF FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION

    Methods are provided for physically removing all the carbon dioxide from the combustion products of solid, liquid, and gaseous fossil fuels. The combustors operate without excess air to maximize the carbon dioxide at the exhaust, which is compressed with the nitrogen and mixed with pressurized water to dissolve the carbon dioxide in a chamber from which the nitrogen gas is removed. The solution is drained into a second lower pressure chamber from which the carbon dioxide re-evolves as a gas, which is then pressurized for sequestration in limestone formations as calcium bicarbonate. The water is recycled to repeat the separation process, and depressurization of the two gases recovers most of the compression energy.

  • Method and Device for Producing Polyphosphoric Acid

    A method and device for producing polyphosphoric acid burns a fuel in combustion air in a combustion chamber, sprays a spray fluid comprising substantially pure orthophosphoric acid and undertakes polymerization-condensation of the pure orthophosphoric acid. A polyphosphoric acid in the form of an acid mist accompanied by formation of gases which mix with combustion gases resulting from burning of the fuel is formed to reach a predetermined temperature, wherein the mixture causes sudden lowering of combustion gas temperature. The acid mix is separated from the gas mixture and the polyphosphoric acid is collected at a bottom of thecombustion chamber and the gas mixture is outputted via a lower part of the combustion chamber separate from the collection of polyphosphoric acid.

  • System and Method for Flue Gas Conditioning

    A method and system for enhancing the efficiency of an electrostatic precipitator in a flue gas stream that withdraws a selected amount of combustion gas from a main flue gas stream at a location downstream of the electrostatic precipitator; typically heats the selected amount of combustion gas to a predetermined temperature; passes the selected amount of combustion gas through a catalyst to convert sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide producing a mixture of flue gas enriched with sulfur trioxide; and returns the mixture of the flue gas enriched with the sulfur trioxide back into the main flue gas stream at a point upstream of the electrostatic precipitator. Optionally a filter removes most of the remaining particulate matter from the selected amount of combustion gas entering the catalyst bed. A portion of this selected amount can be made to bypass the catalyst for precise control of the amount of sulfur trioxide being produced. A controller can control fans, heaters and dampers as well as make computations as the required amount of sulfur trioxide needed.

  • Process and Apparatus for Steam-Methane Reforming

    Methane reacts with steam generating carbon monoxide and hydrogen in a first catalytic reactor; the resulting gas mixture undergoes Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a second catalytic reactor. In the steam/methane reforming, the gas mixture passes through a narrow channel having mean and exit temperatures both in the range of 750.degree. C. to 900.degree. C., residence time less than 0.5 second, and the channel containing a catalyst, so that only reactions having comparatively rapid kinetics will occur. Heat is provided by combustion of methane in adjacent channels. The ratio of steam to methane may be about 1.5. Almost all methane will undergo the reforming reaction, almost entirely forming carbon monoxide. After Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, the remaining hydrogen may be fed back to thecombustion channels. The steam for the reforming step may be generated from water generated by the chemical reactions, by condensing products from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and by condensing water vapor generated in combustion.

  • FASTENING STRUCTURE OF POWER UNIT

    A hybrid transaxle 200 that is a transmission is provided with a junction surface 20 that contacts a junction surface of an internal combustion engine. A bolt span portion 20a of the junction surface 20 is provided with a protrusion portion 25 that elastically deforms so that the internal combustion engine-side junction surface and the hybrid transaxle 200-side junction surface 20 closely contact each other.

  • METHOD AND DEVICE FOR OPERATING AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    In a method for operating an internal combustion engine having an intake tract and one injection valve per cylinder, a lambda controller having an associated lambda sensor for correcting an air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber, an engine operating temperature is detected and a air mass target value in the combustion chamber is determined as a function of an engine operating state. When the lambda controller is deactivated, a first adaptation value is determined as a function of the captured operating temperature, of the determined air mass target value, and a prescribed first weighting value. A second adaptation value is further determined as a function of the determined air mass target value and a prescribed second weighting value. The metering of the fuel mass and/or a model of the air mass fed into the combustion chamber is corrected as a function of the first and second adaptation value.

  • CONTROL APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    A control apparatus for an internal combustion engine includes a fuel injection portion that carries out fuel injection for the internal combustion engine, a recirculation portion that recirculates to an intake system evaporative gas of injected fuel that has been mixed with lubricating oil for the internal combustion engine, a parameter acquisition portion that acquires a fuel mixture parameter corresponding to an amount of fuel that has been mixed with the lubricating oil, an engine stop portion that performs engine stop control to temporarily stop the internal combustion engine when a predetermined stop condition is fulfilled, and a stop condition correction portion that corrects a stop condition of the engine stop control on the basis of at least the fuel mixture parameter.

  • ABNORMAL INTER-CYLINDER AIR-FUEL RATIO IMBALANCE DETECTION APPARATUS FOR MULTI-CYLINDER INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    The invention provides an abnormal inter-cylinder air-fuel ratio imbalance detection apparatus for a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine. The abnormal inter-cylinder air-fuel ratio imbalance detection apparatus is provided with: an air-fuel ratio sensor provided at an exhaust passage of the multi-cylinder internal combustion engine; an abnormal imbalance detection portion that detects an abnormal imbalance between air-fuel ratios corresponding to respective cylinders of the multi-cylinder internal combustion engine through a comparison between a value of a parameter correlative to a variation of an output of the air-fuel ratio sensor and a predetermined abnormality threshold; and a correction portion that corrects at least one of the value of the parameter and the abnormality threshold based on an atmospheric pressure.

  • SKIP FIRE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE CONTROL

    A variety of methods and arrangements for controlling the operation of an internal combustion engine in a skip fire variable displacement mode are described. In one aspect, the working chamber firing that are selected to deliver the desired engine output are determined at least in part based on torque feedback. The torque feedback may be an indication of the torque output of the engine or the torque experienced at some other location in the drive train. In some embodiments, the torque feedback signal is filtered to remove high frequency components of the torque feedback signal in order to help stabilize the system. In another aspect, other operational parameters are used as feedback in the determination of the firing sequence. In yet another aspect, a filter is arranged to filter a feedback signal to provide a filtered feedback signal that is used in the determination of the working chamber firings.

  • EGR CONTROLLER FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    By means of an air model, an estimated quantity of an exhaust gas flowing into a cylinder and a target quantity of the exhaust gas are computed. A deviation between the estimated quantity and the target quantity is multiplied by a feedback gain to obtain a feedback correction quantity. A reference opening degree of an EGR valve is defined according to an engine driving condition and the feedback correction quantity is added to the reference opening degree to obtain a command opening degree of the EGR valve. According to the engine driving condition and the deviation between the estimated quantity and the target quantity, a feedback gain is established so that control accuracy and control stability of a feedback control can be ensured.

  • METHOD FOR CONTROLLING THE SPEED OF AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE SUPERCHARGED BY MEANS OF A TURBOCHARGER

    A method controls an internal-combustion engine (1) supercharged by a turbocharger (12) and including a turbine (13) and compressor (14). The control method comprises steps of determining a current reduced-mass-flow rate (QAHR) of the compressor (14), determining a safety threshold (Mmax_turbo) of the reduced-mass-flow rate (QAHR) that delimits in a "reduced-mass-flow rate/compression ratio" plane an area substantially close to achievement of sonic conditions, and imposing that the reduced-mass-flow rate (QAHR) has to be lower than a safety threshold (Mmax_turbo) of the reduced-mass-flow rate (QAHR).

  • CONTROL UNIT, IN PARTICULAR FOR A HYBRID VEHICLE, HAVING AN ELECTRIC DRIVE AND AN INTERNALCOMBUSTION ENGINE, AND A METHOD FOR OPERATING A HYBRID VEHICLE

    A control unit for a hybrid vehicle is described, having an electric drive, and an internal combustion engine, and a method for operating a control unit, in particular for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle has an electric drive, an internal combustion engine, a traction battery, a power electronics system, current consumers, a control unit and an insulation fault detector. The control unit initiates an emergency operating mode when an insulation fault is detected.

  • SPARK PLUG, PARTICULARLY FOR A STATIONARY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    A spark plug, especially for a stationary internal combustion engine, is described that includes a ground electrode and a center electrode, the center electrode including an inner area, an outer ring and at least two crosspieces, in which the at least two crosspieces connect the inner area to the outer ring.

  • COMBUSTION CHAMBER ASSEMBLY AND IGNITION ELEMENT THEREFOR

    A combustion chamber assembly, especially for a vehicle heater, includes a combustion chamber housing (12) with a housing wall (16) surrounding a combustion chamber. At least one ignition element opening (28) is provided in the area of the housing wall (16) and an ignition element (30) is fixed in a fastening area (44) in at least one ignition element opening (28). The at least one ignition element opening (28) is designed with a circular wedge inner profile (54) and the fastening area of the ignition element fastened in this opening is designed with a circular wedge outer profile and fasteningly meshes with the circular wedge inner profile (54).

  • COOLING SYSTEM FOR A COMBUSTION ENGINE

    The invention relates to a cooling system for a combustion engine, comprising an inlet for cooling fluid, which is connectable to cooling channels of the combustion engine, and an outlet for cooling fluid, which is also connectable to the cooling channels of the combustion engine, a pump for pumping the cooling fluid through the inlet and outlet, a cooler for cooling the cooling fluid, which is connected to the outlet, on the one hand, and the inlet, on the other hand, and a bypass line, which connects the outlet to the inlet without passing through the cooler, and a valve assembly comprising a valve element and an actuation device for actuating the valve element, characterized in that the valve element is arranged in the outlet and comprises at least three fluid connections, wherein a first fluid connection is connected to a section of the outlet coming from a cooling fluid discharge of the combustion engine, a second fluid connection is connected to a section of the outlet leading to the cooler and a third fluid connection is connected to the bypass line leading to the inlet, and the actuation device comprises an expansion element, which is arranged in the inlet downstream of the connection of the bypass line to the inlet, and with which expansion element the valve element is actuatable such that the first fluid connection is connected to the second and/or third fluid connection.

  • TURBULENT JET IGNITION PRE-CHAMBER COMBUSTION SYSTEM FOR SPARK IGNITION ENGINES

    An ignition system for an internal combustion engine having at least one combustion chamber where the ignition system includes a housing, an ignition device, an injector, and a pre-chamber having a nozzle disposed spaced from the proximal portion of the pre-chamber. The igniter portion of the ignition device and the nozzle of the injector are operatively supported in the proximal portion of the pre-chamber and disposed flush therewith. The igniter portion ignites the fuel in pre-chamber such that partially combusted pre-chamber products are forced through orifices in the pre-chamber nozzle and extinguish, but dispersed through the combustion chamber so as to ignite the main fuel charge therein.

  • INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    An engine includes an engine block comprising a cylinder, an intake and exhaust port, and two linearly opposing pistons reciprocatingly mounted relative to two opposing crankshafts. A pair of piston sleeves are reciprocatingly mounted in the cylinder around each piston and connected relative to their respective crankshafts. Each piston sleeve includes a slotted port in communication with either the intake or exhaust port. A pair of sleeve couplers are pivotably connected to their respective piston sleeves and eccentrically rotatable relative to their respective crankshafts. A pair of eccentric inserts include an outside circumferential surface concentrically offset from an inside circumferential surface aperture. Each inside circumferential surface aperture is pivotable about its respective crankshaft. Each outside circumferential surface is rotatable relative to its respective sleeve coupler. A pair of phase couplers are helically moveable about their respective crankshafts and are also pivotably fixed and slidable relative to their respective eccentric inserts.

  • INTAKE SYSTEM OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    An intake system of an internal combustion engine includes: an intake manifold; a cartridge provided in the intake manifold, the cartridge having a plurality of intake channels for supplying air to respective cylinders in the internal combustion engine and valve elements configured to adjust the amounts of intake air taken into the respective cylinders; a gas supply portion configured to introduce gas discharged from the internal combustion engine into the cylinders, the gas supply portion being provided at a center position of the cartridge in the direction of row of the plurality of intake channels; and a plurality of gas distribution channels provided on the cartridge and configured to distribute from the gas supply portion to the plurality of intake channels.

  • Modifying an Internal Combustion Engine for Radical Ignition Combustion

    Methods and apparatus for modifying an internal combustion engine for radical ignition combustion to aid ignition and enhance combustion. In one embodiment, the present invention includes a method of modifying an internal combustion engine with at least one cylinder to control the production and flow of radical ignition species. An exemplary method comprises inserting a cylinder liner into the at least one cylinder, the cylinder liner comprising at least one radical production member for providing and storing radical ignition species. The cylinder liner has a lip section and at least one production member is disposed inside of the lip section. The cylinder liner also has at least one vent to fluidly connect each of the at least one production member to each of at least one lined cylinder in an engine block. The method further comprises attaching the cylinder liner and at least one production member to the engine block.

  • AIR-FUEL-RATIO IMBALANCE DETERMINATION APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    An inter-cylinder air-fuel-ratio imbalance determination apparatus includes an air-fuel-ratio sensor in an exhaust passage of an engine. The air-fuel-ratio sensor functions as a limiting-current-type wide range air-fuel-ratio sensor when a voltage is applied, and functions as a concentration-cell-type oxygen concentration sensor when no voltage is applied. The determination apparatus causes the air-fuel-ratio sensor to function as the limiting-current-type wide range air-fuel-ratio sensor, and executes air-fuel ratio feedback control on the basis of the output value of the air-fuel-ratio sensor. When an imbalance determination parameter is obtained, the determination apparatus causes the air-fuel-ratio sensor to function as the concentration-cell-type oxygen concentration sensor, and obtains, as the imbalance determination parameter, a value corresponding to the differentiated value of the output value of the air-fuel-ratio sensor. The determination apparatus determines an inter-cylinder air-fuel-ratio imbalance state, when the absolute value of the imbalance determination parameter is greater than an imbalance determination threshold value.

  • CONTROL APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    This invention provides a control apparatus for an internal combustion engine that can accurately determine the existence or non-existence of an operational abnormality of a WGV in an internal combustion engine with a turbocharger that is equipped with an EGR system. The internal combustion engine includes a turbocharger, a WGV arranged in an exhaust bypass passage, an EGR valve arranged in an EGR passage, and a pressure sensor that acquires an intake pipe pressure of the internal combustion engine, The existence or non-existence of an operational abnormality of the WGV is determined based on a change in an intake pipe pressure when a valve opening request to the WGV is acquired. At such time, the EGR valve is controlled so as to enter a predetermined open state prior to the valve opening request to the WGV. Further, the existence or non-existence of an operational abnormality of the EGR valve is also jointly determined based on a change in the intake pipe pressure when a valve opening request to the EGR valve is acquired.

  • CONTROLLER OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    [Problem] To suppress a slip of clutch in an automatic transmission when an internal combustion engine is automatically restarted. [Solution] In a case that the internal combustion engine 1 is cranked up from a stopped position of piston 10 in a restart-time first ignition cylinder which is scheduled to firstly start a combustion at the time of automatic restart of internal combustion engine 1 under an automatic stop of internal combustion engine 1 during an idling-stop control, a restart-time ignition time interval between a time point when the cranking of internal combustion engine 1 is started and a time point when a restart-time first ignition cylinder is initially ignited is calculated. A drive-start timing of starter motor 19 is delayed according to this restart-time ignition time interval. Thereby, the cranking of internal combustion engine 1 is carried out by the starter motor 19 under a state where hydraulic pressure supplied from the electric oil pump 27 has increased. Therefore, the slip in the clutch 24 of CVT 14 can be suppressed when gas mixture in the restart-time first ignition cylinder is initially ignited.

  • DEVICE FOR HEATING AIR DURING THE DUTY CYCLE OF A COMBUSTION FURNACE

    An air heating device includes two closed conduits, one conduit for the flow of the air supply to a combustion furnace and the other for the flow of exhaust gas from a combustion furnace to a flue. The conduits pass through and around each other multiple times in an interweaving pattern such that the entirety of either conduit is almost completely surrounded by the other conduit, to maximize contact area and thermal energy transfer between the conduits relative to the device size and no use of small tubes or passageways. The shapes and pattern of the two conduits resembling the appearance of a sine wave and cosine wave drawn on the same x axis.

  • SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR CONTROLLING EMISSIONS IN A COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    A system includes an emissions control system. The emissions control system includes a chemical injection conduit. The emissions control system also includes a chemical injector coupled to the chemical injection conduit, wherein the chemical injector is configured to output an emissions control chemical into the chemical injection conduit. The emissions control system further includes a wave generator coupled to the chemical injection conduit, wherein the wave generator is configured to output multiple waves that propagate through the chemical injection conduit into a flow path of combustion products to drive improved mixing of the emissions control chemical with the combustion products.

  • FUEL DEGRADATION DETECTOR FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    When biomass fuel reacts with oxygen for a long period of time, an amount of acid ions in a fuel tank is increased with time. However, when metallic ions are generated for some reason and the reaction proceeds to change the acid ions into metallic salts, the increase rate of the amount of the acid ions in the fuel tank becomes slow. When the metallic salt forming reaction proceeds rapidly, the amount of the acid ions may even be reduced. Therefore, in the embodiment, the change of the acid ions into the metallic salts in a fuel is detected. Unless the fuel is newly supplied by refueling, the decrease of the amount of acid ions in the fuel can be considered as a change into metallic salts. Accordingly, the generation of metallic salts can be detected by monitoring the decrease of the amount of acid ions in the fuel. Thus, clogging of a fuel supply system or the like caused by the metallic salt forming reaction can be prevented.

  • Circuit for operating an auxiliary unit for starting internal combustion engines

    A circuit is described for operating an auxiliary unit for starting internal combustion engines via a starter battery. The circuit is configured to receive a state-of-function signal, a state-of-charge signal and/or a state-of-health signal from a battery-management system. The respective signals indicate whether the starter battery is capable of operating the auxiliary unit, what state of charge the starter battery has and whether the starter battery is damaged. The circuit is configured to draw electrical energy from a high-voltage battery, connected to the circuit, when the state-of-function signal indicates that operation of the auxiliary unit by the starter battery is not possible, when the state-of-charge signal indicates that the state of charge of the starter battery is too low to operate the auxiliary unit and/or when the state-of-health signal indicates that the starter battery is damaged.

  • COMBUSTION-TYPE DRIVE APPARATUS

    Embodiments of the present invention may include a combustion-type drive apparatus comprising a drive mechanism and an illumination device. The drive mechanism is configured to generate a drive force through combustion of a gas. The drive force is utilized to drive-in a member. The illumination device comprises a lighting portion configured to illuminate a place where the member is being driven in.

  • FIRE GRATE FOR ENHANCED COMBUSTION WITH VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL EXPANSION SLEEVES

    An improved fire grate may provide fresh oxygen rich air to a secondary combustion zone, created by the improved fire grate, of a combustion chamber where a combustion gas stream is typically oxygen starved assisting in the burning process of incompletely burned particulates and reducing other harmful emissions. A baffle plate may be introduced in the secondary combustion zone to increase a combustion chamber temperature, encourage mixing of oxygen starved air with oxygen rich air and increase a residence time of the combustion gas within the combustion chamber. These aspects of the baffle plate promote more efficient burning of the biomass/fuel. Additionally, log lighter(s) may be disposed in the secondary combustion zone to increase a temperature of the combustion chamber for the purposes of reducing harmful emissions. The improved fire grate may be horizontally and vertically adjusted to fit within different sized fireplace combustion chambers.

  • LINEAR FREE PISTON COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH INDIRECT WORK EXTRACTION VIA GAS LINKAGE

    Various embodiments of the present invention are directed toward a linear free piston combustion engine with indirect work extraction via gas linkage, comprising: a cylinder with two opposed free pistons disposed therein that form a combustion section in a center of the cylinder, each free piston comprising a front face facing the combustion section and a back face facing the opposite direction: two opposed extractor pistons disposed in their own cylinders at opposite ends of the free piston cylinder, each extractor piston comprising a front face facing the combustion section and a back face facing the opposite direction; and two gas linkages, each gas linkage comprising a volume sealed between the back face of a free piston and the front face of an extractor piston; wherein each extractor piston is connected to a rotary electromagnetic machine.

  • LINEAR FREE PISTON COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH INDIRECT WORK EXTRACTION VIA GAS LINKAGE

    Various embodiments of the present invention are directed toward a linear free piston combustion engine with indirect work extraction via gas linkage, comprising: a cylinder with two opposed free pistons disposed therein that form a combustion section in a center of the cylinder, each free piston comprising a front face facing the combustion section and a back face facing the opposite direction: two opposed extractor pistons disposed in their own cylinders at opposite ends of the free piston cylinder, each extractor piston comprising a front face facing the combustion section and a back face facing the opposite direction; and two gas linkages, each gas linkage comprising a volume sealed between the back face of a free piston and the front face of an extractor piston; wherein each extractor piston is connected to a rotary electromagnetic machine.

  • Injection System for an Internal Combustion Engine

    An injection system for an internal combustion engine (50) has an injector (22) that is hydraulically coupled to a field reservoir (16), a pump element (14) of a pump-nozzle arrangement or a pump-line-nozzle arrangement. The pump element (14) can be adapted to feed fuel from a fuel tank (10) to the fuel reservoir (16), and the pump element (14) is mechanically coupled to a crankshaft (18) of the internal combustion engine (50) in such a way that the pump element (14) can be driven by the crankshaft (18).

  • CONTROL UNIT OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    A peak signal extracting device extracts a first peak value, being the maximum value of vibration level of a specified frequency in a predetermined crank angle range, and a crank angle; noise level storage device stores a noise vibration level; noise occurrence timing estimation device estimates a crank angle at which noise vibration peak takes place; and noise removing device calculates a second peak value based on the first peak value when a crank angle at which first peak value takes place and a crank angle at which noise peak value estimated to take place are not in coincidence, and calculates a second peak value based on the first peak value and noise peak value when the crank angles are identical. Even if the knocking vibration peak and noise vibration peak are overlapped, presence or absence of occurrence of knocking is determined precisely and a knocking strength is calculated properly.

  • METHOD FOR OPERATING AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    A method for operating an internal combustion engine includes injecting a quantity of fuel in the engine per engine cycle. A total value of the fuel quantity is evaluated as the sum of a fuel quantity base value and a fuel quantity correction value. The fuel quantity base value is determined based on a requested value of engine torque to be generated in the engine cycle. The fuel quantity correction value is determined based on an engine torque error in a previous engine cycle, which is calculated as a difference between a value of engine torque generated in the previous engine cycle and the requested value of engine torque for the previous engine cycle.

  • Method for operating an internal combustion engine

    A method for operating an internal combustion engine in which a speed-based feature of the internal combustion engine, which is correlated with an indicated mean effective pressure of the fuel, is determined during the warm-up of the internal combustion engine and an ideal fuel quantity, which is to be injected into at least one combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine during the warm-up, is ascertained therefrom.

  • Method for operating an internal combustion engine

    A method for operating an internal combustion engine in which a speed-based feature of the internal combustion engine, which is correlated with an indicated mean effective pressure of the fuel, is determined during the warm-up of the internal combustion engine and an ideal fuel quantity, which is to be injected into at least one combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine during the warm-up, is ascertained therefrom.

  • METHOD FOR PERFORMING ON/OFF DIAGNOSIS OF A SMART COOLING PUMP FOR AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    A method for performing on/off diagnosis of a smart cooling pump for an internal combustion engine comprising a cylinder having an inner liner layer, an external engine block layer, and a coolant layer placed between the inner liner layer and the external engine block layer, wherein the smart cooling pump pumps a coolant fluid inside the coolant layer is provided.

  • METHOD AND APPARATUS TO DETERMINE A CYLINDER AIR CHARGE FOR AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    A method for determining a cylinder air charge for an internal combustion engine includes determining engine operating parameters including an intake air charge density, an engine delta pressure as a ratio of an intake manifold pressure to an exhaust pressure, and an engine speed. An open-throttle volumetric efficiency corresponding to the engine operating parameters is determined, and a closed-throttle volumetric efficiency corresponding to the engine operating parameters is also determined. The cylinder air charge is determined using a selected one of the open-throttle volumetric efficiency and the closed-throttle volumetric efficiency.

  • Method of Lubricating an Internal Combustion Engine

    The present invention relates to a method of lubricating an internal combustion engine with a power output of at least 1600 kilowatts by supplying to the internal combustion engine a lubricating composition containing an oil of lubricating viscosity and at least 0.5 wt % of a hydrocarbyl-substituted carboxylic acid or anhydride thereof. The invention further provides a lubricating composition suitable for the method.

  • COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY CONTROL SYSTEM FOR A LAMINAR BURNER SYSTEM

    A high efficiency laminar flow burner system for proving a stream of heat energy including a supply input module for providing fuel and laminar streams of air to a combustion manifold. The laminar air delivery system includes a damper, a blower, and an air delivery controller. The air delivery controller receives an efficiency signal to control the flow of a laminar air intake stream by adjusting the damper. The combustion manifold includes an air-fuel mixing system, a stoichiometric unit, and a refractory unit each coupled to one another. The laminar air intake stream traveling from the supply input module passes through a stoichiometric unit body to meet with a first combustion stream from an air-fuel mixing chamber within the stoichiometric unit body to define a second combustion stream. The second combustion stream then travels across the refractory passageway to define a third combustion stream.

  • EXHAUST PURIFICATION SYSTEM OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    A control device of an internal combustion engine is provided. A silver-alumina based catalyst device is arranged in an engine exhaust system, and an exhaust gas air-fuel ratio in the catalyst device is made rich to restore the NO.sub.X adsorption ability of the catalyst device.

  • IGNITION APPARATUS, INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE, IGNITION PLUG, PLASMA EQUIPMENT, EXHAUST GAS DEGRADATION APPARATUS, OZONE GENERATING/STERILIZING/DISINFECTING APPARATUS AND ODOR ELIMINATING APPARATUS

    A plasma equipment comprising a microwave oscillator for generating a predetermined microwave band, a microwave resonant cavity for allowing the predetermined microwave band to resonate, and microwave radiation means for radiating the microwave into the microwave resonant cavity, wherein the microwave radiation means is a microwave radiation antenna having the shape and the size so as to form a strong electric field of the microwave in a plasma generation field formed by the microwave.

  • CRANKPIN INCLUDING CAMS, CONNECTING ROD INCLUDING FOLLOWERS, AND INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE INCLUDING CRANKPIN AND CONNECTING ROD

    A crankshaft may include first and second journals having circular cross-sections, and a crankpin, the crankpin extending between first and second crankpin journals. The crankpin may include first, second, and third cams including respective first, second, and third cam profiles, wherein the first, second, and third cam profiles differ from one another. At least one of the first, second, and third cam profiles may be configured to affect the stroke of a connecting rod coupled to the crankpin. A connecting rod may include first, second, and third followers including respective first, second, and third follower surfaces, wherein the first and second follower surfaces differ from one another. An internal combustion engine may include a crankshaft and a connecting rod configured to provide relative linear movement between a crankpin axis and a proximal end of the connecting rod.

  • TURBINE COMBUSTION SYSTEM TRANSITION PIECE SIDE SEALS

    A seal strip (54) with a central relatively thin portion (68) and first and second thicker side portions (70, 72) that may be wedge-shaped adjacent the central portion. Each side portion may be formed of a linear array of base-in prisms (56), where each prism includes a base adjacent and normal to the central portion, and a thickness tapering distally toward an adjacent edge of the seal strip. The base-in prisms of each side portion may be separated by transverse slots (55) along the length of the strip. The transverse slots of the first side portion may be unaligned with the transverse slots of the second side portion along the length of the strip. A retention pin (58) may extend normally from an end of the seal strip. The seal strip may be mounted in tapered slots (49) of a gas turbine transition exit frame (48).

  • TURBINE COMBUSTION SYSTEM TRANSITION SEALS

    Respective seals (54, 78) for the upper and lower spans (48A, 48B) of an exit frame (48) of a turbine combustion system transition piece (28). Each seal has a first strip (55, 79) and a second strip (66, 88) of a sealing material. The two strips of each seal are attached together along a common edge. The second strip is flexible, generally parallel to the first strip, and has a bead (72, 90) along its free edge. This forms a spring clamp that clamps a rail (68, 86) of the exit frame between the bead and the first strip of each seal. A tab extends axially aft from the first strip of each seal for insertion into a circumferential slot (58, 82) in a turbine inlet support structure (52, 76), thus sealing the transition piece (46) to the turbine inlet for efficient turbine operation.

  • INTAKE PIPE FOR AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    An intake pipe for an internal combustion engine, comprising an outer housing of the intake pipe, wherein a feed line for charge air opens into an inlet section of the housing, a heat exchanger that is integrated in the intake pipe and cooled by a coolant and that comprises a plurality of exchanger tubes, in particular flat tubes, and an engine flange for connecting the intake tube to a cylinder head of an internal combustion engine, wherein charge air flows through the exchanger tubes and at least a section of the outer housing is designed as a water jacket surrounding the exchanger tubes.

  • METHOD FOR HEATING THE COMBUSTION AIR OF AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE, AND INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FOR CARRYING OUT A METHOD OF SAID TYPE

    Embodiments for operating an internal combustion engine are provided. One example method for operating an internal combustion engine having at least one cylinder head and at least two cylinders, in which each cylinder has at least one inlet opening for the supply of combustion air into the cylinder, comprises activating a heating device for heating the combustion air when a fuel supply of the internal combustion engine is deactivated, the heating device arranged in an overall intake line coupled to the internal combustion engine, the overall intake line including at least two merged intake lines, each intake line leading to an inlet opening of a respective cylinder.

  • METHOD FOR HEATING THE COMBUSTION AIR OF AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE, AND INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FOR CARRYING OUT A METHOD OF SAID TYPE

    Embodiments for operating an internal combustion engine are provided. One example method for operating an internal combustion engine having at least one cylinder head and at least two cylinders, in which each cylinder has at least one inlet opening for the supply of combustion air into the cylinder, comprises activating a heating device for heating the combustion air when a fuel supply of the internal combustion engine is deactivated, the heating device arranged in an overall intake line coupled to the internal combustion engine, the overall intake line including at least two merged intake lines, each intake line leading to an inlet opening of a respective cylinder.

  • INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    An internal combustion engine is provided with a heat-generation chamber disposed so as to be adjacent to a combustion chamber, a heat-generation chamber valve capable of setting up either a communicating state or a shut-down state between the heat-generation chamber and the combustion chamber, and a heat-recovery pipe for recovering heat of a gas guided into the combustion chamber and utilizing the heat as recovered for warm-up. The heat-generation chamber is provided with a heat-generation-chamber spark plug. A catalytic unit is provided between the heat-generation-chamber spark plug and the heat-recovery pipe.

  • INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH INTAKE AIR HEATING, AND METHOD FOR OPERATING AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE OF SAID TYPE

    Embodiments for an engine system are provided. One example internal combustion engine having at least one cylinder head and at least two cylinders, in which each cylinder has at least one inlet opening for the supply of combustion air into the cylinder, comprises an intake line leading to each inlet opening, an overall intake line where the intake lines of at least two cylinders merge, such that a distributor junction point is formed, and a heating device arranged in the overall intake line which has at least one strip-like heating element, a first narrow side of a cross section of which faces toward intake combustion air flow, wherein the heating device is arranged adjacent to the distributor junction point at which the intake lines merge to form the overall intake line, a spacing between the heating device and the distributor junction point being smaller than the diameter of a cylinder.

  • Method for controlling the temperature of an injector of an injection system for injecting fuel into the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine

    A method for controlling the temperature of an injector of an injection system for injecting fuel into the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine during the standstill of the internal combustion engine involves branching off a partial amount of the fuel as flush volume between a pre-supply pump and a high-pressure pump; conducting it through a heat exchanger for heating the fuel; and feeding the heated fuel to a high-pressure fuel storage (inside the injector) so that the flush volume flows through the high-pressure fuel storage to prevent fuel from solidifying.

  • Two-Stroke Internal Combustion Engine with Three Chambers

    A two-stroke internal combustion engine is disclosed. Fuel efficiency is improved and extended over a wide power band by an inlet valve which controls the air charge. This inlet valve also varies the volume of the combustion chamber and thus maintains a constant compression ratio. A stoichiometric air/fuel mixture can be maintained at low power. An integrated positive displacement supercharger provides adequate air charge at all power levels and recovers compressor power from unused supercharged air. The capacity of the supercharger is reduced at low power level. An integrated secondary expansion chamber extends the power stroke by mixing combustion gases with ambient air for farther expansion and power production. The secondary expansion chamber allows simultaneous purging and charging of the combustion chamber. An alternate embodiment with opposed cylinders provides nearly continuous power.

  • INTAKE PARAMETER-CALCULATING DEVICE FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND METHOD OF CALCULATING INTAKE PARAMETER

    To provide an intake parameter-calculating device and intake parameter-calculating method for an internal combustion engine, which are capable of accurately calculating intake parameters in a case where an intake throttle valve is provided. The intake parameter-calculating device 1 includes an ECU 2. The ECU 2 calculates an error KTHERRCOR using an error model equation (8) (step 2), and calculates a correction coefficient KTHCOR as the reciprocal of the sum of the error KTHERRCOR and 1 (step 3). The ECU 2 calculates a passing air amount GAIRTH by correcting a basic passing air amount GAIRTHN calculated by an equation (11) using a correction coefficient KTHCOR (step 6). A model parameter A for the error model equation (8) is calculated using equations (14) to (18) by onboard identifying calculation with uniform weighting (steps 48 to 53).

  • METHOD FOR DETERMINING INFORMATION REPRESENTATIVE OF THE POSITION OF A REAL TOOTH ON A TOOTHED TARGET RIGIDLY ATTACHED IN ROTATION TO A SHAFT OF AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND ASSOCIATED DEVICE

    A method an device for determining information representative of the position of a real tooth of a toothed target rigidly attached in rotation to a shaft of an internal combustion engine, the toothed target including n real teeth and m missing teeth forming a reference area and the engine being equipped with a sensor for detecting the passage of the real teeth of the toothed target in front of the sensor and with a unit capable of measuring, for each tooth k, the period of time, called period (T(k)) of the tooth k, separating the tooth k from the preceding tooth k-1. For the tooth k, the following ratio is calculated: R ' ( k ) = [ ( T ( k - N 2 ) ) N i N 2 + 1 N T ( k - i ) .times. i 0 N 2 - 1 T ( k - i ) ] ##EQU00001## where N is an even integer greater than or equal to 2. Subsequently, based on this ratio, an information representative of the position of the tooth k with respect to the reference area is determined.

  • CONTROL SYSTEM FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    A control system for an internal combustion engine, which is capable of properly determining timing for restarting the engine in a stopped state when idle stop control of the engine is executed during a heating operation of an air conditioner, thereby making it possible to ensure marketability and fuel economy performance in a well-balanced manner. The control system executes the idle stop control of the engine during the heating operation of the air conditioner. The control system includes an ECU. The ECU sets a lower limit blowout temperature, calculates an estimated blowout temperature, and controls the engine such that the engine is restarted when the estimated blowout temperature has become not higher than the lower limit blowout temperature.

  • OUTPUT CONTROL DEVICE FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND OUTPUT CONTROL METHOD FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    The present invention concerns an output control device for an internal combustion engine for generating a drive force of a vehicle. The output control device includes a braking request detection sensor for detecting whether or not a braking request operation has been performed, and a controller programmed to calculate a braking operation time from the start of the braking request operation, and limit an output of the internal combustion engine when the braking operation time becomes longer than a predetermined time.

  • FUEL CONTROL APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    A fuel control apparatus (100) for an internal combustion engine in a vehicle, the vehicle provided with: the internal combustion engine (200) provided with a fuel supply apparatus (208, 209) capable of supplying, as fuel, first fuel (liquid fuel) and second fuel (CNG) in which amount of a reducing agent in an exhaust air under an rich air-fuel ratio is greater than that in the first fuel; and an exhaust purification apparatus (300, 400) disposed in an exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, the fuel control apparatus provided with: a first controlling device for controlling the fuel supply apparatus such that the supply of the fuel is temporarily stopped under a predetermined condition; and a second controlling device for controlling the fuel supply apparatus such that the second fuel is supplied as the fuel and such that an exhaust air-fuel ratio is the rich air-fuel ratio, if the supply of the fuel is restarted from a state in which the supply of the fuel is temporarily stopped.

  • LUBRICANT COMPOSITION FOR AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    A lubricating oil composition for an internal combustion engine contains: a base oil including a component (A) of a polyalphaolefin having a kinematic viscosity at 100 degrees C. of 5.5 mm.sup.2/s or less, a CCS viscosity at +35 degrees C. of 3000 mPas or less and a NOACK of 12 mass % or less and a component (B) of a mineral oil having a viscosity index of 120 or more; and polyisobutylene having a mass average molecular weight of 500,000 or more. A content of the composition (A) is 25 mass % or more of a total amount of a lubricating oil.

  • LUBRICATING OIL COMPOSITION FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

    Provided is a lubricant oil composition for an internal combustion engine which is characterized by including a base oil having a viscosity index of 125 or higher and a Noack evaporation amount (250.degree. C..times.1 h) of 15% by mass or less, and, based on a total amount of the composition, from 0.1 to 10% by mass of (A) a C.sub.2 to C.sub.20 olefin polymer having a mass average molecular weight of 500 or more and 10,000 or less and/or (B) a polymeric compound having a mass average molecular weight of 10,000 or more and less than 100,000, wherein a content of (C) a polymeric compound having a mass average molecular weight of 100,000 or more is less than 1.0% by mass. The lubricant oil composition can, despite of its low viscosity, reduce noise during running, prevent fatigue damage such as gear pitting, reduce the consumption of the oil, and provide excellent fuel saving performance.

  • ASSEMBLY WITH A COMBUSTION ENGINE, AN ELECTRIC MACHINE AND A PLANETARY GEAR TRAIN ARRANGED THEREBETWEEN, AS WELL AS A METHOD FOR CHANGING AN OPERATING MODE OF SUCH ASSEMBLY

    An assembly with a combustion engine and an electric machine, which are coupled with each other by way of a planetary gear train, employs a claw clutch or a toothed clutch, in particular as a brake, between a ring gear of the planetary gear train and a housing of the combustion engine. For this purpose, rotation speeds of the electric machine and the combustion engine set commensurate with a fixed gear ratio, and the brake is closed after the set rotation speeds have been attained with a predetermined minimum accuracy. In this way, machine elements which are compact and operate with insignificant wear, such as claw clutches or toothed clutches, can be employed as the clutch or brake.

  • ASSEMBLY OF COMBUSTION ENGINE AND PLANETARY GEAR TRAIN CONNECTED TO THE COMBUSTION ENGINE

    A combustion engine having at least one combustion chamber and a crankshaft is combined with a planetary gear train having a ring gear, a sun gear, and a plurality of planetary gears rotatably mounted on a planet carrier and interacting with the ring gear and the sun gear. In order to dampen or absorb vibrations of the crankshaft of the combustion engine, a vibration damper unit is provided to keep the vibrations away from the planetary gear train. The vibration damper unit includes a support member which is attached to the crankshaft at a location which is in closer proximity of the combustion chambers of the combustion engine than a connection member by which the crankshaft is coupled to the planetary gear train.

  • EXHAUST GAS PURIFICATION APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    An exhaust gas purification apparatus for an internal combustion engine comprises a NOx selective reduction catalyst provided in an exhaust passage of an internal combustion engine; an upstream side oxidation catalyst which is a catalyst having an oxidizing ability provided in the exhaust passage upstream from the NOx selective reduction catalyst and which includes a carrier for carrying a noble metal for oxidation, the carrier being formed of a basic carrier; and a reducing agent supply until which supplies a reducing agent to an exhaust gas allowed to flow into the NOx selective reduction catalyst. Accordingly, even when the oxidation catalyst causes the SOx poisoning in the exhaust gas purification apparatus for the internal combustion engine having the oxidation catalyst and the NOx selective reduction catalyst provided in the exhaust passage, the reduction efficiency of NOx reduced by the aid of the NOx selective reduction catalyst is favorably maintained.

  • GAS SEAL ARRANGEMENT FOR ROTARY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    A rotor of a rotary internal combustion engine, with each of the end faces having at each of the apex portions a recess defined therein in communication with the at least one apex groove, an end seal received in the recess in sealing engagement with the apex seal of each of the at least one apex groove, a first seal member in sealing engagement with the end seal and with the face seal of the face groove defined between the apex portion and a first one of the adjacent apex portions, and a second seal member in sealing engagement with the end seal and with the face seal of the face groove defined between the apex portion and a second one of the adjacent apex portions.

  • APEX AND FACE SEALS WITH ROTARY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    In one aspect, described is a rotor for a rotary internal combustion engine where a first face seal biased axially outwardly away from the first end face has opposed curled ends abutting a first seal element of a respective one of the adjacent apex seal assemblies, and a second face seal biased axially outwardly away from the second end face has opposed curled ends abutting a second seal element of a respective one of the adjacent apex seal assemblies.

  • APEX SEAL ARRANGEMENT FOR ROTARY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    In one aspect, described is a rotor for a Wankel engine comprising two circumferentially spaced apart apex seals at each of the apex portions with each apex seal protruding axially from both end faces, and each apex seal having a first biasing member biasing the apex seal radially outwardly away from the peripheral face of the body, and a second biasing member biasing the apex seal axially outwardly away from a respective one of the end faces, the two apex seals of a same one of the apex portions being biased by the respective second biasing member in opposite axial directions from one another.

  • ROTARY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH PHASING GEAR

    In one aspect, described is a rotor of a rotary internal combustion engine, including a phasing gear with an annular meshing section including a plurality of radially inwardly oriented teeth and an annular attachment section connected to the meshing section and coaxial therewith, the attachment section being offset axially inwardly from the teeth and having at least a portion thereof located radially inwardly of the teeth, and a fastener apparatus connecting the phasing gear to the rotor body, the fastener apparatus engaging the rotor body radially inwardly of the teeth.

  • APEX SEAL FOR ROTARY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    A rotor of a rotary internal combustion engine including apex springs each being formed of a continuous band including first and second opposed end sections each contacting the inner surface of the apex seal adjacent to a respective one of the end faces, a respective intermediate section extending radially inwardly from each end section and contacting the outer surface of the groove along a respective contact zone, and a central section extending axially between the intermediate sections and having a portion extending radially outwardly from each of the intermediate sections, the central section extending out of contact with both the outer surface of the groove and the apex seal.

  • OIL SEAL ARRANGEMENT FOR ROTARY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    A rotor of a rotary internal combustion engine, including an annular oil seal assembly snugly received within each oil seal groove, each oil seal assembly including a seal ring retaining first and second axially spaced apart annular sealing elements in substantial radial alignment with one another, the seal ring radially pressing each of the sealing elements in sealing engagement with a respective surface in the groove in opposite directions from one another, and a spring member biasing the seal ring axially away from the end face.

  • APEX SEAL FOR ROTARY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    In one aspect, there is described a rotor of a Wankel engine including a plurality of apex seal members each biased by a respective spring, each spring including an axial action portion and a radial action portion, the axial action portion including at least two radially extending band sections with adjacent ones of the band sections being connected by a fold, one of the band sections contacting a radially extending surface of the apex seal member and another of the band sections contacting a radially extending element of the rotor body, and the radial action portion forming a major part of a length of the spring, contacting an axially extending surface of the apex seal member in two spaced apart locations, and contacting the rotor body between the two spaced apart locations.

  • ROTARY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH EXHAUST PURGE

    In one aspect, described is a rotary engine having a purge port located rearwardly of the inlet port and forwardly of the exhaust port along a direction of the revolutions of the rotor, the purge port being in communication with the exhaust port through each of the chambers along a respective portion of each revolution, and the inlet and outlet ports being relatively located such that a volumetric compression ratio of the engine is lower than a volumetric expansion ratio of the engine.

  • INFLATOR DEVICE WITH FUEL-RICH MONOLITHIC GRAIN AND OXIDANT-ENHANCED COMBUSTION

    The disclosure provides an inflator device for a passive restraint device, like an airbag. In certain aspects, a fuel-rich gas generant grain is located in actuating proximity to an initiator device. The grain has at least one flow channel through which a shock wave generated by the initiator device passes. The shock wave opens a burst disc between the inflator housing and downstream airbag to permit gases to flow into the airbag. A chamber storing pressurized gas (having at least one oxidant, e.g., O.sub.2) is also disposed within the inflator. Upon initiator actuation, the oxidant can react with combustion products of the initiator and the fuel-rich gas generant and flow into the airbag for rapid inflation. Methods of inflating airbags and improving airbag deployment reliability are provided. Such inflators are particularly suitable for large volume (greater than 60 liter) airbags.

  • EXHAUST-GAS COOLING MODULE FOR AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    An exhaust gas cooling module for an internal combustion engine includes an exhaust gas recirculation valve comprising an exhaust gas recirculation valve housing having an inlet, an exhaust gas heat exchanger, an exhaust gas non-return valve comprising an exhaust gas non-return valve housing, and two exhaust gas channels. The two exhaust gas channels are arranged in the exhaust gas cooling module so as to separately extend from the inlet of the exhaust gas recirculation valve housing to the exhaust gas non-return valve housing via the exhaust gas heat exchanger.

  • INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    An internal combustion engine is provided with an exhaust valve which has a tapered plug part, a tube-shaped member which is arranged in a region where the exhaust valve is arranged and which is engaged with the tapered plug part of the exhaust valve at one end part which faces a combustion chamber, and a fluid spring for biasing the tube-shaped member to the side facing the combustion chamber. The tube-shaped member is formed so as to be able to move substantially parallel to the direction of movement of the exhaust valve and the other part abuts against the fluid spring. The fluid spring is formed so as to contract using the change in pressure of the combustion chamber as a drive source when the pressure of the combustion chamber reaches a predetermined control pressure.

  • CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENT AND METHOD FOR EVALUATING SIGNALS OF A CRANKSHAFT SENSOR AND OF A CAMSHAFT SENSOR OF AN INTERNALCOMBUSTION ENGINE

    A circuit assemblage and a method for evaluating signals of a crankshaft sensor and of a camshaft sensor of an internal combustion engine are provided, the times at which the signals occur being evaluated. A position signal of a shaft of the internal combustion engine is formed from the times. Storage units are provided which simultaneously store the occurrence times of the signals of the crankshaft sensor and the occurrence times of signals of the camshaft sensor. A decision unit is provided as to whether the position signal is formed from the occurrence times of the signals of the crankshaft sensor or from the occurrence times of the signals of the camshaft sensor.

  • METHOD AND DEVICE FOR HANDLING UNCONTROLLED COMBUSTIONS IN AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE OF A MOTOR VEHICLE

    A method for handling uncontrolled combustions in an internal combustion engine of a motor vehicle, the uncontrolled combustions occurring independently of the ignition by a spark plug and being detected in or at the internal combustion engine. To allow a rapid yet reliable reduction of uncontrolled combustions in an internal combustion engine in order to protect the internal combustion engine from damage, the number of detected uncontrolled combustions in a monitoring period is determined and compared to a threshold value. A temperature in a combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine is dropped if the threshold value is exceeded.

  • METHOD OF CONTROLLING A COMBUSTION ENGINE FROM ESTIMATION OF THE BURNT GAS MASS FRACTION IN THE INTAKE MANIFOLD

    In a method of controlling the combustion of a combustion engine from an estimation of the burnt gas mass fraction in the intake manifold, a measurement relative to a fresh air flow rate or to a burnt gas flow rate is performed upstream from the mixing space where fresh air and burnt gas mix. The burnt gas mass fraction present in the mixing space is then estimated from the measurement and from a model of the mixing dynamics in this space. A transport delay between the space and the intake manifold is estimated. The mass fraction of burnt gas in the intake manifold is then deduced in real time. Finally, combustion is controlled from the burnt gas mass fraction in the intake manifold.

  • METHOD OF CONTROLLING AN EGR VALVE INTEGRATED IN AN EGR CIRCUIT OF A COMBUSTION ENGINE

    The invention relates to a method of controlling a combustion engine (1) comprising at least one cylinder (2) and a manifold (3) and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) circuit including an EGR valve. The EGR valve (6) is controlled by carrying out the following stages: a) measuring a pressure difference .DELTA.P in a portion of the exhaust gas recirculation circuit including the EGR valve; b) selecting a burnt gas fraction set point BGR.sup.sp in the intake manifold (3); c) calculating an opening set point for the EGR valve (6) from a pressure drop relation applied in a portion of the exhaust gas recirculation circuit including the EGR valve, depending on difference .DELTA.P at the EGR valve and on the burnt gas fraction set point BGR.sup.sp in the intake manifold; and d) controlling the EGR valve (6) as a function of the opening set point of EGR valve (6).

  • COMBUSTION DIAGNOSIS DEVICE FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    A combustion diagnosis device for a diesel engine having a plurality of cylinders, including an engine speed sensor for detecting a rotational speed of each cylinder, an injection correction amount calculation unit for calculating an amount of correction for fuel injection of each cylinder in accordance with the engine speed sensor, a rotational fluctuation calculation unit for calculating a rotational fluctuation of each cylinder in accordance with the engine speed sensor, and a combustion state determination unit for determining a combustion state of a determination-target cylinder in accordance with the rotational fluctuation when the correction amount calculated by the injection correction amount calculation unit reaches an upper limit threshold value

  • FUEL INJECTION DEVICE FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    The present invention is directed to fuel injection devices for internal combustion engines. An object of the present invention is to provide a fuel injection device for an internal combustion engine capable of identifying a non-contributing fuel quantity when port injection and cylinder injection are simultaneously performed. If an explosion count and a coolant temperature for any cycle can be acquired, they can be applied to a first map and a second map to thereby find non-contributing fuel for 100% port injection and non-contributing fuel for 100% cylinder injection, respectively. Each of these found values of the non-contributing fuel is multiplied by a corresponding injection share ratio during injection of the non-contributing fuel to thereby find non-contributing fuel that takes into account the injection share ratio. Finally, these values are added up to arrive at a non-contributing fuel requirement value.

  • CONTROL DEVICE FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    To provide a control device for an internal combustion engine that can optimally control a plasma ignition operation independent of fuel type. In a control device 30 of an internal combustion engine 20, which controls plasma ignition operation for causing volume ignition of air fuel mixture by plasma in a combustion chamber 10, a fuel type detection part 40 detects a type of fuel to be supplied to the combustion chamber 10. According to the detected fuel type, a state of plasma or a state of air fuel mixture in the combustion chamber 10 is controlled.

  • METHOD AND CONTROL UNIT FOR OPERATING A LINE CIRCUIT FOR WASTE HEAT UTILIZATION OF AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    A method for operating a line circuit (4) for waste heat utilization of an internal combustion engine (2), and a control unit (1). A feed pump (6), at least one heat exchanger (8), an expansion machine (10), a condenser (12) and a control unit (1) are situated in the line circuit (4). The control unit (1) calculates a time period which is required until individual components or all the components of the line circuit (4) have reached a predefined temperature, in order to start up the line circuit (4) at least partially.

  • HYBRID INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND AIR MOTOR SYSTEM AND METHOD

    A hybrid internal combustion engine and air motor system is provided and includes at least one chamber having a drivable member and at least one intake valve and at least one exhaust valve, and a reservoir connected to the chamber through at least one of the intake valve and the exhaust valve. The system further comprises a computer configured to calculate air compressor efficiency during an air compressor mode of operation and select an intake and exhaust valve opening and closing timing sequence for maximizing air compressor efficiency and/or a computer configured to calculate air motor efficiency during an air motor mode of operation and select an intake and exhaust valve opening and closing timing sequence for maximizing air motor efficiency.

  • CHAIN TENSION GUIDE SUITABLE FOR AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    A chain tension comprising a guide body wherein the guide body comprises a layer made of a non-thermoplastic polyimide on at least part of the chain guiding face.

  • PROCESS FOR REDUCING LUBRICATION OIL CONSUMPTION FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

    A process for selecting a piston ring for a piston containing internal combustion engine such that the engine experiences a reduction in lubrication oil consumption (LOC) used therein. The process can include providing engine specifications for an engine for which the piston ring is to be selected and simulating engine temperatures for the engine as a function of the engine specifications. The process can also include simulating bore distortion for the engine as a function of the simulated engine temperatures and simulating piston ring dynamics for the engine as a function of the simulated bore distortion. Once the simulated piston ring dynamics have been obtained, the process can include calculating a plurality of LOC values and selecting a piston ring as a function of the calculated LOC values.

  • OPERATING METHOD FOR AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    In an operating method for a direct-injection gasoline internal combustion engine having a plurality of combustion chambers with at least partially low-NO.sub.x combustion (NAV) and a plurality of partial operating modes with at least one partial operating mode having controlled auto-ignition (RZV), a reduction in the reactivity of exhaust gas recirculated into the respective combustion chamber is achieved by means of an external exhaust gas recirculation using exhaust gas which has been conducted through an oxidation catalyst thereby improving the operating stability of the engine particularly in the auto-ignition partial operating mode.

  • KNOCK CONTROL DEVICE OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    In a knock control device of an internal combustion engine equipped with a control unit which updates a background level based on an output signal from a knock sensor and detects the generation of a knock by comparing a variation of the background level with a knock determination value, a determination as to whether the knock is generated is performed by ((variation of first filter value of peak hold value)>((1-filter coefficient)/(1+filter coefficient).times.(predetermined value larger than maximum value of variation of peak hold value in case where knock is not generated))).

  • VEHICLE-MOUNTED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE CONTROL DEVICE

    An internal combustion engine is provided with a ratchet one-way clutch between an output shaft of a starting motor and a crankshaft. The one-way clutch includes a claw piece which rotates integrally with the crankshaft, and an engagement part which rotates integrally with the starting motor and with which the claw piece engages. An electronic control device performs control for driving the starting motor when the engine is stopped to reduce the difference between the rotation speed of the engine and the rotation speed of the starting motor, that is, the difference between the rotation speed of the claw piece and the rotation speed of the engagement part.

  • COMBUSTION-HEATING SYSTEM

    A combustion-heating system includes a plurality of combustion heaters connected to each other, a combustion heater including: a heating plate; an arrangement plate; an annular outer peripheral wall; a partition plate; a combustion chamber in which fuel gas collides with a flame-holding part constituting part of the outer peripheral wall, and thereby holding flames; an inflow path through which the fuel gas flows into the combustion chamber; and an outflow path through which exhaust gas flows from the combustion chamber toward the outside thereof, the outflow path to preheat the fuel gas by heat of the exhaust gas through the partition plate. The combustion-heating system includes a communication path communicating combustion chambers thereof with each other. The flame-holding part and the communication path are provided in series in a direction in which the heating plate and the arrangement plate face to each other.

  • SPARK PLUG FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    The spark plug for an internal combustion engine has a cylindrical housing, a center electrode held inside the housing, a ground electrode connected to the housing and forming a spark discharge gap between itself and the center electrode, and, an end projection projected from the end portion of the housing toward the head end side of the spark plug. The center electrode and ground electrode are arranged so that most of the spark discharge gap is disposed over the open areas and the electrode area in which the end projection is arranged.

  • FUEL-INJECTION VALVE FOR AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    Disclosed herein is a fuel injection valve for an internal combustion engine. The fuel injection valve includes a valve body (10), a nozzle (20), a valve plate (30), a main needle spindle (40), a main needle (50), a main needle spring (60), a spring plate (70), a pilot needle spring (80), a pilot needle spindle (90) and a pilot needle (100). In the present invention, both the main needle and the pilot needle are opened or only the pilot needle is opened by compressed high-pressure fuel oil or compressed air, thereby enabling main injection and pilot injection to be separately performed by the single fuel-injection valve. Furthermore, because opening of the main needle valve can be controlled by compressed air for ignition or control of an engine, only the pilot injection may be conducted even without using a separate compression apparatus or the like.

  • INJECTION DEVICE FOR INTRODUCING A UREA SOLUTION INTO THE EXHAUST TRACT OF AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    The invention relates to an injection device (1), designed in particular for injecting fluid into an exhaust tract of an internal combustion engine, having a valve needle (14), an injection chamber (12) having at least one injection opening (44), and a control chamber (20). The injection device (1) is designed such that a pressure differential between the injection chamber (12) and the control chamber (20) brings about a displacement of the valve needle (14) between an open position in which a fluid flow through the injection opening (44) from the injection chamber (12) is released, and a closed position, in which the injection opening (44) is closed off. The injection chamber (22) and the control chamber (20) are hydraulically connected to an inlet (40, 42; 9), such that a pressure rise in the inlet (40, 42; 9) results in a pressure rise in the injection chamber (12), and a pressure rise in the control chamber (20) delayed in time relative to the pressure rise in the injection chamber (12), and said pressure differential brings about a displacement of the valve needle (14) from the closed position into an open position.

  • INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH CHARGE AIR COOLING

    An internal combustion engine has a cylinder head having at least one cylinder. A cover is connected to the cylinder head and covers the cylinder and related valve train components. An exhaust gas turbocharger powered by the engine's exhaust system delivers compressed gasses to the intake system. An exhaust gas recirculation system branches off from the exhaust system downstream of the turbocharger and feeds into the intake system upstream of the turbocharger. A coolant-fed charge air cooler is disposed between the cylinder head and the cover, and at a point that is a geodetically highest point in the intake system when the internal combustion engine is in an installed position. This configuration prevents any liquid that has condensed out of the charge air during cooling from collecting in the cooler and/or in the intake system between the cooler and the at least one cylinder.

  • METHOD FOR OPERATING AN AUTO-IGNITION INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    A method for operating an auto-ignition internal combustion engine that is operable in a single substance mode in which the internal combustion engine is supplied with self-igniting liquid fuel, and a dual substance mode in which the internal combustion engine is supplied with the liquid fuel as an ignition agent and gaseous or liquid alternative fuel, includes operating the internal combustion engine in the dual-substance mode at an increased exhaust gas recirculation rate relative to the single-substance mode, and throttling an air supply in an intake system of the internal combustion engine such that a lambda value in an exhaust gas of the internal combustion engine is in a range greater than 1 up to 1.3.

  • FUEL INJECTION APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    The fuel injection apparatus includes: a fuel injector having a leading end portion that has an internal space in which fuel is accumulated and an injection port for injecting fuel; and an adsorbent disposed in the internal space, the adsorbent being capable of selectively adsorbing an alcohol component in a blended fuel of gasoline and alcohol. The fuel injection apparatus controls an injection amount from the fuel injector such that an air-fuel ratio of an internal combustion engine is a control target air-fuel ratio based on an alcohol concentration of the blended fuel to be supplied to the fuel injector. In this fuel injection apparatus, a fuel pressure is brought to a predetermined low fuel pressure when a request is issued for desorbing alcohol adsorbed on the adsorbent.

  • METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE WATER CONTENT OF A MIXED ALCOHOL/GASOLINE FUEL IN AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE, AND DEVICE FOR IMPLEMENTING SAME

    Disclosed is a method for determination of the water content of a mixed alcohol/gasoline fuel in an internal combustion engine of a vehicle, which includes the stages of: determination of a first value for alcohol content of the fuel using a measurement of combustion richness; determination of a second value for alcohol content of the fuel using a measurement recorded by a sensor for measurement of the electrical conductivity of the fuel; comparison of the first value and the second value; and, when the first value is lower than the second value, determination of the water content of the fuel by assigning a predetermined value for water content associated with the pair consisting of the first value and of the second value for alcohol content.

  • COMBUSTION CONTROLLER FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    According to one embodiment, an apparatus for controlling combustion in an internal combustion engine having a fuel delivery system includes a cylinder contents prediction module configured to predict at least one condition within a combustion cylinder of the internal combustion engine. The apparatus also includes a fueling parameter selection module configured to generate a fuel command for the fuel delivery system. The fuel command is based at least partially on the predicted at least one condition within the combustion cylinder.

  • DEVICE AND METHOD FOR COMBUSTION ANALYSIS BY MEANS OF INDUCTION FURNACES AND PROTECTIVE ELEMENT FOR INDUCTION FURNACES FOR THE COMBUSTION ANALYSIS

    With a device for combustion analysis, comprising an induction furnace with a furnace chamber, in which carrier gas can flow during operation via at least one gas inlet to a gas outlet, and in which a sample to be analyzed can be arranged and burned in a sample container, a hollow protective element is provided and, with normal operation of the device, is arranged in the furnace chamber directly above the sample in such a way that the end of the protective element facing towards the sample, together with the sample container, forms a constriction for the carrier gas flow, wherein the protective element is desgned to convey gases produced during the combustion of the sample through the protective element and to the gas outlet.

  • Regenerable MgO Promoted Metal Oxide Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion

    The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier comprised of a plurality of metal oxide particles in contact with a plurality of MgO promoter particles. The MgO promoter particles increase the reaction rate and oxygen utilization of the metal oxide when contacting with a gaseous hydrocarbon at a temperature greater than about 725.degree. C. The promoted oxide solid is generally comprised of less than about 25 wt. % MgO, and may be prepared by physical mixing, incipient wetness impregnation, or other methods known in the art. The oxygen carrier exhibits a crystalline structure of the metal oxide and a crystalline structure of MgO under XRD crystallography, and retains these crystalline structures over subsequent redox cycles. In an embodiment, the metal oxide is Fe.sub.2O.sub.3, and the gaseous hydrocarbon is comprised of methane.

  • EXHAUST PURIFICATION SYSTEM OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    An exhaust purification system of an internal combustion engine of the present invention comprises a silver-alumina-based catalyst device arranged in the engine exhaust system. When a temperature of the silver-alumina-based catalyst device becomes a second set temperature T2 lower than a first set temperature T1 at which the silver-alumina-based catalyst device releases NO.sub.2, and releases NO, the silver-alumina-based catalyst device is heated such that a temperature elevation rate thereof is increased to make the temperature T of the silver-alumina-based catalyst device be a third set temperature T3 between the first set temperature T1 and the second set temperature T2.

  • EXHAUST PURIFICATION SYSTEM OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    In an internal combustion engine, inside of an engine exhaust passage, a hydrocarbon feed valve (15), an exhaust purification catalyst (13), and a particulate filter (14) are arranged. At the time of engine operation, the amplitude of change of the concentration of hydrocarbons which flow into the exhaust purification catalyst (13) is made to become within a predetermined range of amplitude by control of the injection amount of hydrocarbons from the hydrocarbon feed valve (15). When the temperature of the particulate filter (14) is to be raised to be regeneration temperature, the injection amount of hydrocarbons is increased and thereby the pass through amount of hydrocarbons which pass through the exhaust purification catalyst (13) is increased.

  • IGNITION COIL FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    An ignition coil for an internal combustion engine is provided which includes a body with a metallic hollow cylinder and a high-voltage portion joined to an end of the cylinder. The hollow cylinder has a primary winding and a secondary winding disposed therein. The high-voltage portion is made of a resin material and includes an inner cylinder and an outer cylinder disposed outside the inner cylinder through a gap. The inner cylinder has disposed therein a conductive elastic member which establishes an electric connection to a spark plug. A resinous insulator is disposed in a gap between the first and second cylinders. The resinous insulator is higher in insulation strength than the resin material of the high-voltage portion, thereby improving the degree of electric insulation between the metallic hollow cylinder and the conductive elastic member.

  • CONTROL APPARATUS OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    Provided is a control apparatus of the internal combustion engine capable of removing deposited foreign matters accumulated on an EGR valve without deteriorating a combustion state of the internal combustion engine. When the vehicle is under deceleration and under fuel cut operation, the ECU opens an EGR shutoff valve and obtains an intake pressure "Pclose" under the EGR valve in the fully closed state. Then, the ECU opens the EGR valve and obtains an intake pressure "Popen" under the EGR valve in the fully opened state. Then, the ECU calculates a difference .DELTA.P between "Popen" and "Pclose", and closes the EGR shutoff valve on the condition that the difference .DELTA.P is equal to or smaller than a threshold value "Pth1". Then, the ECU opens the EGR valve, and subsequently opens the EGR valve.

  • CONTROL APPARATUS OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    Provided is a control apparatus of the internal combustion engine capable of removing deposited foreign matters accumulated on an EGR valve without deteriorating a combustion state of the internal combustion engine. When the vehicle is under deceleration and under fuel cut operation, the ECU opens an EGR shutoff valve and obtains an intake pressure "Pclose" under the EGR valve in the fully closed state. Then, the ECU opens the EGR valve and obtains an intake pressure "Popen" under the EGR valve in the fully opened state. Then, the ECU calculates a difference .DELTA.P between "Popen" and "Pclose", and closes the EGR shutoff valve on the condition that the difference .DELTA.P is equal to or smaller than a threshold value "Pth1". Then, the ECU opens the EGR valve, and subsequently opens the EGR valve.

  • METHOD OF FORMULATING A FUEL COMPOSITION FOR USE IN INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES

    A blendstock for forming a fuel composition for use in internal-combustion engines, includes a polar fluid component, a microblender component, and a neutralizer component. The neutralizer component is present in an amount effective to substantially neutralize the microblender component to allow for the microblender component to substantially spontaneously blend with the polar fluid component. The polar fluid component may include a water component and an alcohol component, and the neutralizer component may include an ammonia component. The blendstock may be added to a hydrocarbon fuel, such as diesel fuel, to form the fuel composition.

  • MULTI-DIRECTIONAL ASYMMETRIC SURFACES FOR HOUSINGS AND HOUSING COVERS AND INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES COMPRISING THE SAME

    In one embodiment, a housing is disclosed. The housing includes an asymmetric surface portion having a periphery, the asymmetric surface portion comprising a plurality of asymmetric surface sections disposed about the periphery, each asymmetric surface section having a surface contour differing from the surface contours of the other surface sections. In another embodiment, an engine front cover is disclosed. The engine front cover includes a substantially circular asymmetric surface portion disposed concentrically about a crankshaft bore, the asymmetric surface portion comprising a plurality of asymmetric surface sections disposed substantially concentrically about the crankshaft bore, each asymmetric surface section having a surface contour differing from the surface contours of the other surface sections.

  • METHOD FOR CONTROLLING OPERATION OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    In a method for controlling operation of an engine in which an EGR system is incorporated therein, when the engine is in a pressure-accumulable operational state in which EGR gas can be pressure-accumulated in an EGR passage between an EGR control valve and an on-off valve, these valves are brought into a full closed state, respectively. In addition, when an intake pressure transmitted from an air intake passage to the engine becomes more than or equal to a target value of the intake pressure set based on an operational state of the engine, the on-off valve is switched to a full open state, and then the on-off valve is switched to the full closed state again after elapse of a predetermined time, and high-pressure EGR gas of a low oxygen concentration is temporarily stored in the EGR passage.

  • CONTROL DEVICE AND CONTROL METHOD FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    An electronic control unit for an internal combustion engine that includes an engine-driven alternator diagnoses on the bases of an air-fuel ratio correction amount in air-fuel ratio feedback control whether a rich abnormality that the air-fuel ratio of air-fuel mixture is excessively rich is occurring in a fuel injection system. When the state of charge of a battery charged with electric power generated by the alternator is higher than or equal to a predetermined value, charging control for setting a voltage generated by the alternator at a voltage lower than a normal generated voltage is executed. When the state of charge of the battery is higher than or equal to the predetermined value, charging control for charging the battery at the voltage is prohibited when a degree of mixing of fuel in lubricating oil of the internal combustion engine is higher than or equal to a predetermined degree.

  • COMBUSTION APPARATUS

    There is provided a combustion apparatus for reducing generation of NOx by securing more time for mixing fuel and air and uniformly mixing fuel and air. The combustion apparatus includes: a modifying part configured in the center to modify supplied hydrocarbon-based fuel and air and discharge high temperature modified gas including hydrogen to an outlet; and a supply part configured at an outer side of the outlet to jet fuel and air to one side of the modified gas discharged from the modifying part to form a flame at a position spaced apart by a pre-set distance from the outlet.

  • CATALYZED SUBSTRATE AND EXHAUST SYSTEM FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    An exhaust system for internal combustion engines, and a catalyzed substrate for use in an exhaust system, is disclosed. The exhaust system comprises a lean NO.sub.x trap and the catalyzed substrate. The catalyzed substrate has a first zone and a second zone, wherein the first zone comprises a platinum group metal loaded on a support and the second zone comprises copper or iron loaded on a zeolite. The first zone or second zone additionally comprises a base metal oxide or a base metal loaded on an inorganic oxide. Also provided are methods for treating an exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine using the exhaust system. The exhaust system is capable of storing NH.sub.3 generated in rich purging, reacting the NH.sub.3 with slip NO.sub.x from the NO.sub.x trap, controlling H.sub.2S released from NO.sub.x trap desulfation, and oxidizing slip hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. When the catalyzed substrate is a filter substrate, it is also capable of removing soot from exhaust system.

  • FLEXIBLE LINE SEGMENT FOR THE EXHAUST SYSTEM OF AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    An exhaust system for internal combustion engines, and a catalyzed substrate for use in an exhaust system, is disclosed. The exhaust system comprisA flexible line segment for the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine, with an annularly corrugated or helically corrugated metallic bellows, for exhaust gas flow therethrough, and a line segment arranged upstream in reference to the metallic bellows, with a precipitation device provided in the line section, arranged upstream in reference to the metallic bellows or mounted thereat. The precipitation device is provided for urea derivatives or urea entrained in an edge layer of the exhaust gas flow from an oversaturated edge layer of the exhaust gas flow.es a lean NO.sub.x trap and the catalyzed substrate. The catalyzed substrate has a first zone and a second zone, wherein the first zone comprises a platinum group metal loaded on a support and the second zone comprises copper or iron loaded on a zeolite. The first zone or second zone additionally comprises a base metal oxide or a base metal loaded on an inorganic oxide. Also provided are methods for treating an exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine using the exhaust system. The exhaust system is capable of storing NH.sub.3 generated in rich purging, reacting the NH.sub.3 with slip NO.sub.x from the NO.sub.x trap, controlling H.sub.2S released from NO.sub.x trap desulfation, and oxidizing slip hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. When the catalyzed substrate is a filter substrate, it is also capable of removing soot from exhaust system.

  • ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY INITIATED WITH ZERO EMISSION IN-SITU COMBUSTION

    The invention provides an enhanced oil recovery process that may be used in light oil reservoirs, and which is particularly beneficial in high-relief formations. The process includes an initial injection of air into the formation through an injection well to support the in-situ combustion and mobilize formation fluids. Produced flue gas is recovered and recycled into the formation by injection through an injection well. Initially, gas production is restricted for the purpose of increasing the gas injection to recovery ratio to pressurize the formation. With an increase in formation pressure, the rate of air injection is gradually reduced as the rate of recovered flue gas injection increases. Combustion front propagation in the formation is controlled by the rate of production at each actively producing well to ensure good horizontal sweep across the well and to prevent channeling to one or more production wells.