Cell surface receptors have been shown to be the sites of disease infectivity in living organisms in two previous studies. The cell surface receptors were shown to have two reactive heads or terminals with one head being half the size and shape of the other head. A new study reported here involved a comparism of the effects of acid and alkaline herbal extracts on Candida albicans infected cell surface receptors at human cutaneous Candida infection sites. The effects of three acid herbal extracts on cutaneous Candida albicans infection were compared with those of three alkaline herbal extracts. The three alkaline herbal extracts were the extract of Azadirachta indica leaves; the extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaves and the pulp of ripe Carica papaya (pawpaw) fruit. The three acid herbal extracts were the extract of Aniseed (ugugo) [a tiny Central African moderately hot spice] seeds; the juice of Gambeya albida (family sapotaceae) fruit (a local Nigerian fruit that has a high content of ascorbic acid); and the extract of curry leaves.The mode of data collection was the observation and photographing of the effects of the acid and alkaline herbal extracts on cutaneous Candida albicans infection sites. The results of the study showed that candida albicans tissues infected the human skin by attaching themselves to cell surface receptors of skin epithelial cells.They also showed that the cell surface receptor on the human skin to which the ‘root’ (centromere) of a candida colony attached itself had two receptive ends, to which an infective organism attached itself (and to which an anti-infective agent also attached to eliminate the infective agent). These two ends consisted of an excitatory or ‘muscarinic’ end which was stimulated by the acidic herbal extracts and an inhibitory or ‘adrenergic’ end to which the alkaline herbal extract molecules attached themselves to produce inhibitory effects on the stimulatory effects of the attached candida tissues. The excitatory (stimulatory) harsh stinging actions of the acid heral extracts were interpreted as contractile or muscarinic-like action. The cell surface receptor head to which the acid herbal extracts attached to exercise the muscarinic action to eliminate attached Candida tissues was termed a muscarinic receptor site. From the structure of muscarine (that contains 2 indole ring structures), the muscarinic receptor site was infered to be to be an indole ring structure and the inhibitory or ‘adrenergic ‘end to be a benzene ring structure. Since the two heads of the cell surface receptor lie side by side, a placement of an indole ring to the right of a benzene ring produced the 5-hydroxytryptamine nucleus structure.
Conclusions: The study therefore concludes that the cell surface receptor to which the roots of candida albicans attached themselves in the human skin is the 5- hydroxytryptamine receptor. This means that under the normal body functioning situation, 5-hydroxytryptamine was the endogenous body substance that guarded cell surface receptors against the attachment and habitation of the Candida albicans infective organisms. The findings of this study have therefore established 5-hydroxytrptamine (5-HT or Serotonin) as the endogenous mediator of the human body’s defence and cell surface receptors to which candida albicans (and by implication , all infective organisms and antigens / toxins) attached themselves to infect and damage the body) as the receptors of 5-hydroxytryptamine. Since body defence is a part of normal physiological body functioning (as the mediator of the body’s defence also ensures that the body is working normally at all times), 5-hydroxytryptamine is therefore through the findings of this study also the endogenous mediator of all normal human body (physiological) functioning. This means that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT or Serotonin) mediates all activities of normal human body functioning. The conclusions of this study about 5-HT as the endogenous mediator of
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