Quarterly published "Inventi Impact: Civil Construction" publishes high quality unpublished, as well as high impact pre-published research and reviews related to all the areas of civil construction including construction material handling, equipment, production planning, specifications, scheduling, estimating, cost control, quality control, labor productivity, inspection, contract administration, construction management etc.
Field monitoring in the process of excavation of foundation pit is an important measure to reduce the risk. This paper describes a\ncase study of the filed monitoring data during the process of deep foundation pit excavation in soft soil areas. The displacements of\nthe diaphragm wall top were analysed and found that the horizontal displacement showed the convex shape, while the vertical\ndisplacement showed the concave shape. Based on the field monitoring data, the deformation mode of lateral displacement of the\ndiaphragm wall belonged to the composite mode. The relationship between maximum lateral displacement and excavation depth\nshowed a strong linear correlation. The horizontal displacements of bracing pillar decreased with the increasing of bracing\nstiffness, while the effect of bracing stiffness on vertical displacements of bracing pillar could be ignored. The settlement profile\ncomputed using the method of Hsieh and Ou was in good agreement with the field observations and better described the\ndevelopment trend of the ground surface settlement. The ratio of the maximum ground surface settlement....................
One of the major challenges of constructing any high rise building for civil
engineers is to make it earthquake resistant. This resistance largely depends
on the building’s shape and structural system. A comparative study has been
done in this paper about the seismic behavior and response of buildings having
a regular plan and plan irregularity (re-entrant corners). The 5 building
models considered in this study are 15 stories each, the same area and identical
weight. Among the 5 building models, 2 are with a regular plan (square,
rectangle) and the other 3 building models are with plan irregularity
(re-entrant corners). All of them are modeled using ETABS 2015 program for
Dhaka, Bangladesh (seismic zone 2). Static loads, wind loads and seismic
loads are considered for each model and dynamic response under Bangladesh
National Building Code (BNBC) 2006 response spectrum has been meticulously
analyzed. A comparison for story displacement, base shear, story drift
and time period has been established and explored for dynamic response
spectrum among the models. The results show that buildings with irregularity
have a greater value of time period, drift and displacement and hereby are
more susceptible to damage during an earthquake or disaster....
Based on large-scale triaxial tests of sandy gravel materials, the strength and deformation characteristics under loading/unloading
conditions are analyzed. At the same time, the applicability of the hyperbolic constitutive model to sandy gravel is studied using
experimental data. +e results indicate that sandy gravel under low confining pressures (0.2 and 0.4 MPa) shows a weak softening
trend; the higher the confining pressure, the more obvious the hardening tendency (0.6 and 0.8 MPa) and the greater the peak
strength. During unloading tests, strain softening occurs, and the peak strength increases with increasing confining pressure.
During loading tests, dilatancy appears when the confining pressure is low (0.2 MPa). With increasing confining pressure (0.4, 0.6,
and 0.8 MPa), the dilatancy trend gradually weakens, and the cumulative volume tric strain increases, which reflects the relevance
of the stress paths. +rough research, it is found that the hyperbolic constitutive model has good applicability to sandy gravel soils,
and the corresponding model parameters are obtained....
This article focuses on the comparison between the Spanish architects de La Hoz (Madrid,\n1924) and JosÃ© MarÃa GarcÃa de Paredes (Seville, 1924) projects for â??ultra-cheapâ?? housing in Cordoba,\nhow it evolved from a British patent named Ctesiphon, and the study of some of existing buildings\nerected following this construction system. The aim of this article is to stablish the evolution of the\nsystem from the original patent into a new possibility for low-income social housing. This system\nwas used to erect new developments in the 1950s that would relocate people living in huts during the\ndictatorship era in Spain, thus new â??technological hutsâ? were proposed and erected. The research\nprocess includes an analysis of the documents and literature available of the patent and the projects\nthemselves, and in situ tests (infrared thermography and samples extraction) will allow to establish\nthe relation between its original inventor, the dissemination of his works in publications from that\nera, and the Spanish company that subsequently, as a concession of the original patent, introduced\nthat system in Spanish architecture. Analysis of the original patent document allows to study the\nprimitive system as it was invented and for what uses it was conceived. Thus, such a methodology\nsupports an establishment of the technical innovations achieved in order to adapt the system to the\nAndalusian environment at that time and its use for housing....
,e cut-and-cover technique is widely used in the field of tunnel engineering owing to its simple construction technology, high
working efficiency, and low cost. However, the safety of the foundation pit and the environmental impact during excavation are of
great concern, especially for tunnels that pass through lakes and/or rivers. In this paper, a novel excavation and construction
method is presented for the Taihu tunnel, which is the longest lake-crossing tunnel in China. In this method, a cofferdam of
double-row steel sheet piles (DSSPs) was designed in order to divide the overlying excavation into several closed zones. During the
construction, four zones were regarded as a unit, and different construction steps were carried out simultaneously in each zone.
,erefore, an assembly line for the tunnel excavation was established to accelerate the construction speed. ,e most distinctive
advantage of this method is that the excavation did not cut off the normal flow of the lake water and the shipping routes, with low
environmental impact. To investigate the tunnel deformation during excavation, a finite element analysis combined with field
monitoring data was adopted, indicating that the magnitude of the tunnel deformation was notably less than those reported from
other excavation projects. Moreover, the effect of groundwater on the piles and the safety of the foundation pit was revealed using
numerical modelling. ,is study provides a new idea for the design and construction of tunnel engineering, especially for extralong
underwater tunnels in soft deposits....
To explore the instability mechanisms of coal pillars in the upper coal during coal seam group mining in the Yulin area and hence
to achieve safe and green mining of the lower coal seams, the engineering geological condition for no. 3−1, no. 4−2, and no. 5−2 coal
seams in the north-second panel area of Hongliulin Coal Mine was investigated in this article. Using the combination of physical
simulation, FLAC3D numerical calculation, and theoretical analysis, the instability mechanisms, the characteristics of the fracture
structure, and fracture evolution between the coal pillars and the interval rocks were all studied. The results showed that a layout
position existed that induced instability and subsidence of the coal pillars of the upper coal seam. The instability mechanism was
such that the concentrated stress of the upper and lower coal pillars caused shear plastic damage in the interval rock along the
direction of stress-transfer influence angle. The phenomenon of “inclined step beam” fracture structure, falling fracture zone, and
severe mine pressure happened during seam group mining. Furthermore, the minimum center offset formula was put forward to
study the instability of the upper coal pillars. This study provides a theoretical basis for a reasonable layout on how to position coal
pillars for shallow coal seams group mining....
This paper presents the evaluation of the potential aggregate source for pavement
construction in Pakistan. Recently the demand for construction materials
has been increased significantly due to the establishment of the China-
Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) Projects. Therefore, it is essential to look
for new resources of construction materials along with the CPEC routes in
consideration of this increasing demand. In this context, a Physical and Mechanical
characterization investigation is carried out on the Permian Wargal
Limestone from Zaluch Nala, Salt Range to explore their potential to utilize as
construction materials. The studied samples have tolerable values for all standard
engineering parameters, proposed by various national and international
agencies such as AASHTO, ASTM, BS, and NHA. Furthermore, as a performance
indicator of aggregate overall quality, the evaluated mechanical qualities
were integrated into a single characteristic, Toughness Index (TI). The TI
values also suggested that the Permian Wargal limestone aggregates meet international
quality standards for pavement construction. On the basis of geotechnical
testing and Toughness Index (TI), the late Permian Wargal limestone,
Zaluch Nala, Salt Range, is strongly recommended as a potential aggregate
resource for mega projects such as the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor
(CPEC) and other construction projects....
Contemporary structures can resist earthquakes as they deform and dissipate energy.\nHowever, during strong ground motions, these structures can sustain significant concrete damage\nand overall permanent deformations. Therefore, it is of great benefit if earthquake-resisting structures\ncan deform and dissipate energy, and yet sustain mitigated damage. This paper illustrates the\nfindings of an experimental study focused on the mitigation of damage and reduction of residual\ndisplacements in reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls. In this study, the cyclic properties of\ntwo innovative shear wallsâ??a slender and a squat wallâ??which were cast with fiber-reinforced\ncementitious composites and reinforced with steel and glass fiber reinforced polymer bars are\ninvestigated. Then, the improvements of the innovative specimens with respect to two conventional\nRC shear walls are discussed in terms of damage propagation, self-centering, stiffness retention\nand energy dissipation. As the experiments showed, the innovative walls sustained mitigated\nconcrete damage and less residual drift ratios while illustrating significant stiffness and energy\ndissipation capacities....
Estimation of basic material consumption in civil engineering is very important in the initial phases of project implementation. Its\nimportance is reflected in the impact of material quantities on forming the prices of individual positions, hence on forming the\ntotal cost of construction. The construction companies use the estimate of material quantity, among other things, as a base to make\na bid on the market. The precision of the offer, taking into account the overall conditions of the business realization, directly\ninfluences the profit that the company can make on a specific project. In the early stages of project implementation, there are not\nenough available data, especially when it comes to the data needed to estimate material consumption, and therefore, the accuracy\nof material consumption estimation in the early stages of project realization is smaller. The paper presents the research on the use\nof artificial intelligence for the estimation of concrete and reinforcement consumption and the selection of optimal models for\nestimation. The estimation model was developed by using artificial neural networks. The best artificial neural network model\nshowed high accuracy in material consumption estimation expressed as the mean absolute percentage error, 8.56% for concrete\nconsumption estimate and 17.31% for reinforcement consumption estimate....
The scarcity of housing increases as population continues to rise all over the
world. Despite government efforts at providing houses, yearly demand keeps
on exceeding available houses and hence the hike in rent, the cost of erecting
houses and the cost of building materials. This ultimately calls for a decisive
solution. This study therefore applied compliance to cost ratio (C-CR)
analysis in evaluating the optimum properties of fired ceramic bricks. The
optimum mix proportions of waste glass (WG) and wood saw dust (WSD)
in fired bricks, that will be suitable for housing constructions were hence
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