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Compared with front engine vehicle, the windward sideÃ¢â?¬â?¢s flow field in cooling model of rear engine\nbus is complicated and it canÃ¢â?¬â?¢t be calculated by means of 1D model. For this problem, this paper\nhas used Star-CCM to build a 3D simulation model of cooling system, engine compartment and\ncomplete vehicle. Then, it had a 1D/3D coupling calculation on cooling system with Kuli software.\nIt could be helpful in the optimization design of the flow field of rear engine compartment and optimization\nmatch of cooling system....
Many existing battery energy storage system (BESS) control schemes focus on mitigating negative\nimpacts resulting from the operation of distributed energy resources-photovoltaic facilities (DERPV).\nThese include out-of-firm conditions from reverse power flow or extreme variability in the\nservice voltage. Existing control strategies fail to consider how BESS control schemes need to operate\nin a consecutive day-to-day basis in order for them to be implemented in the field. In this\npaper, a novel energy management algorithm capable of dispatching a BESS unit upstream of a\nmulti-megawatt DER-PV is introduced. This algorithm referenced as the Master Energy Coordinator\n(MEC), accepts forecasted DER-PV generation and individual feeder load to create daily charge\nand discharge rate schedules. Logic is integrated to the cyclic discharging event to sync with the\nforecasted peak load, even when it will occur during the morning of the next day. To verify the\nMEC operation, Quasi-Static Time Series (QSTS) simulations are conducted on a 12.47 kV distribution\nfeeder model utilizing historical head-of-feeder and DER-PV analog DSCADA measurements...
A proactive heating method is presented aiming at reducing the energy consumption in a HVAC system while maintaining\nthe thermal comfort of the occupants. The proposed technique fuses time predictions for the zonesÃ¢â?¬â?¢ temperatures, based on a\ndeterministic subspace identification method, and zonesÃ¢â?¬â?¢ occupancy predictions, based on a mobility model, in a decision scheme\nthat is capable of regulating the balance between the total energy consumed and the total discomfort cost. Simulation results for\nvarious occupation-mobility models demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed technique....
This paper presents a compact quadrature coupler with a tunable frequency and power-dividing ratio. Wide tunable frequency
and power-dividing ratio are achieved by using the novel tunable unit instead of the transmission line sections in a traditional
varactor-based quadrature coupler. Closed-form equations are derived for design parameters. For verification, a quadrature
coupler is designed based on the given parameters, which demonstrate the tunable frequency of 2.0 GHz to 6.0 GHz and the
tunable power-dividing ratio of -20 dB to 7.2 dB at 3 GHz. Finally, a microstrip tunable quadrature coupler is fabricated and
measured. The measurements agree well with simulations. Under the frequency-tunable state, the measured 3-dB working
frequency of this coupler can be continuously adjusted from 2.0 GHz to 4.7 GHz. And during the adjustment process, the
return loss and isolation are always >15 dB. In the power-dividing ratio-tunable state, the adjustment range of the measured
power-dividing ratio is from -14 to 6.0 dB at 3 GHz. Moreover, the return loss and isolation are always maintained at >20 dB....
By applying the hydrogen index values obtained from S2 versus TOC graph and mass balance calculations obtained from the results of Rock-Eval pyrolysis, the original hydrocarbon generative capacity and the amounts of the hydrocarbons generated are estimated. For calculations and comparison, two methods were applied (Claypool et al. 1998 and Schmoker 1994) for 30 organic rich samples representative Kharita and Khatatba formations, from wells IF 37-7 and S. Dabaa 11-1. Such formations are characterized by gas/oil prone source rock (Type III/II kerogen) with different thermal maturities. Calculation results indicate that the amounts of original hydrocarbons and the hydrocarbon generative capacities of the two methods are similar and not correlated with the results of the Rock-Eval pyrolysis....
Energy harvesting is a rapidly growing area in many scientific and engineering-
related fields due to the demand for many applications. This paper focuses
on the design and simulation of the voltage doubler rectifier circuit at 2.45
GHz operating frequency. The design of a rectifier is optimized based on the
use of Schottky diode HSMS 286 B due to its low forward voltage at this frequency..................
Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries work as the basic energy storage components in modern\nrailway systems, hence estimating and improving battery efficiency is a critical issue in optimizing\nthe energy usage strategy. However, it is difficult to estimate the efficiency of lithium ion\nbatteries accurately since it varies continuously under working conditions and is unmeasurable via\nexperiments. This paper offers a learning-based simulation method that employs experimental data\nto estimate the continuous-time energy efficiency and coulombic efficiency of lithium ion batteries,\ntaking lithium titanate batteries as an example. The state of charge (SOC) regions and discharge\ncurrent rates are considered as the main variables that may affect the efficiencies. Over eight million\nempirical datasets are collected during a series of experiments performed to investigate the efficiency\nvariation. A back propagation (BP) neural network efficiency estimation and simulation model is\nproposed to estimate the continuous-time energy efficiency and coulombic efficiency. The empirical\ndata collected in the experiments are used to train the BP network model, which reveals a test error of\n10Ã¢Ë?â??4. With the input of continuous SOC regions and discharge currents, continuous-time efficiency\ncan be estimated by the trained BP network model. The estimated and simulated result is proven to\nbe consistent with the experimental results....
Allocation of reactive power equipment can relieve the transient overvoltage, which is a big threat to the sending-end electric
power system of ultrahigh-voltage direct current (UHVDC). However, the dynamic reactive power allocation mostly depends on
the trial-and-error method, lacking in an optimal allocation method based on the quantitative evaluation index. To deal with the
abovementioned problem, in this study, a dynamic reactive power optimal allocation method is proposed based on the reactive
power compensation sensitivity. In detail, first, based on the existing transient overvoltage assessment index, the general form of
reactive power optimization problem is proposed. Then, taking the sending-end power system of UHVDC as an example, the
reactive power allocation location is determined based on a reactive power compensation sensitivity. Furthermore, combined with
the sensitivity, the compensation capacity of each place is determined by particle swarm optimization (PSO). The simulation
results show that the proposed method can effectively allocate the dynamic reactive power and suppress the transient overvoltage
This paper presents the application of dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) on Power distribution systems for mitigation of voltage sags at critical loads. DVR is one of the compensating types of custom power devices. This paper presents a selective harmonic elimination using diode clamped multi level inverter. These topologies are well suited for high-power, high-voltage level and low harmonic. Computer simulations results are presented to verify the performance of the 8 bus DVR system...
Brilliant Green has been used as a photosensitized in photogalvanic cell for solar energy conversion. EDTA was used as an electronic donor (reductant) and sodium lauryl sulphate (surfactant) was used as an anionic micelle for greater photoejection of electrons. The photopotential and photocurrent without surfactant was found to be 610 mV and 68 mV respectively whereas with surfactant their values were found to be 652 mV and 76 µA respectively. The effect of various parameters on the electrical output of the cell has been studied. The current voltage (i-V) characteristics of the cell has also been observed. Performance of the cell was determined in dark at its power point....
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