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With the development of SDN, end-to-end network reservation becomes a reality. Resource reservation can\nbecome an online service for network users, and the network faces new challenges on how to allocate usersÃ¢â?¬â?¢\nresource dynamically. To solve the problem, this paper proposed a bat-based algorithm for SDN network\nscheduling along with a network request model. The network resource request model is for characterizing usersÃ¢â?¬â?¢\nsimultaneous network resource request in SDN. Based on the model, this paper transforms the resource reservation\nproblem into a multiple-knapsack problem and proposes a bat algorithm to optimize the solution. Experiments\nshow that the proposed algorithm is better than greedy and dynamic programming algorithm. The major\ncontribution of this paper is to model the SDN usersÃ¢â?¬â?¢ resource requests and apply bat algorithm for the solution....
Although relaying can be very beneficial for wireless systems, understanding which relaying schemes can achieve specific\r\nperformance objectives under realistic fading is crucial. In this paper we present a general framework for modeling and evaluating\r\nthe performance of dual-hop decode-and-forward (DF) relaying schemes over independent and not necessarily identically\r\ndistributed (INID) Nakagami-m fading channels.We obtain closed-form expressions for the statistics of the instantaneous output\r\nsignal-to-noise ratio of repetitive transmission with selection diversity. Furthermore, we present a unified statistical overview of\r\nother three significant relaying schemes with DF, one based on repetitive transmission with maximal-ratio diversity and the other\r\ntwo based on relay selection (RS). To compare the considered schemes, we present closed-form and analytical expressions for\r\nthe outage probability and the average symbol error probability under various modulation methods, respectively. Importantly,\r\nit is shown that when the channel state information for RS is perfect, RS-based schemes always outperform repetitive ones.\r\nFurthermore, when the direct link between the source and the destination nodes is sufficiently strong, relaying may not result\r\nin any gains, and it should be switched off....
This investigation has presented an approach to Extractive Automatic Text
Summarization (EATS). A framework focused on the summary of a single
document has been developed, using the Tf-ldf method (Frequency Term,
Inverse Document Frequency) as a reference, dividing the document into a
subset of documents and generating value of each of the words contained in
each document, those documents that show Tf-Idf equal or higher than the
threshold are those that represent greater importance, therefore; can be
weighted and generate a text summary according to the user’s request. This
document represents a derived model of text mining application in today’s
world. We demonstrate the way of performing the summarization. Random
values were used to check its performance. The experimented results show a
satisfactory and understandable summary and summaries were found to be
able to run efficiently and quickly, showing which are the most important text
sentences according to the threshold selected by the user....
Tag collision is one of the critical problems in radiofrequency identification (RFID) technology which can be widely used to identify
objects using tag attachment automatically. Through the transmission and reflection of wireless radiofrequency signals, noncontact
identification is realized. However, when multiple tags respond to the reader simultaneously, a collision occurs, significantly
degrading the identification performance of RFID systems. To tackle the tag collisions, we propose a fast hybrid strategy-based
RFID anticollision (FHS-RAC) protocol. Based on the conventional query tree algorithm, the proposed FHS-RAC makes full
use of collision bits and the total response bits to achieve the faster tag identification. Extensive simulations and experiments
verify the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed scheme....
Data security is the science of protecting data in information technology, including authentication,
data encryption, data decryption, data recovery, and user protection. To protect data from
unauthorized disclosure and modification, a secure algorithm should be used. Many techniques have
been proposed to encrypt text to an image. Most past studies used RGB layers to encrypt text to
an image. In this paper, a Text-to-Image Encryption-Decryption (TTIED) algorithm based on Cyan,
Magenta, Yellow, Key/Black (CMYK) mode is proposed to improve security, capacity, and processing
time. The results show that the capacity increased from one to four times compared to RGB mode.
Security was also improved due to a decrease in the probability of an adversary discovering keys. The
processing time ranged between 0.001 ms (668 characters) and 31 s (25 million characters), depending
on the length of the text. The compression rate for the encrypted file was decreased compared to
WinRAR. In this study, Arabic and English texts were encrypted and decrypted....
Power line communications (PLCs) refer to a technology based on the existing electrical wiring to transmit data among the devices\nconnected to the network. The PLC technology is an excellent solution widely studied and analysed by researchers, even in those\nareas characterized by strict requirements, such as industries. In this paper, a technique based on fuzzy logic, for the dynamic\nmanagement of the amplitude of the signal emitted by the devices of a power line network, is proposed.Themain aim is to manage\nthe amplitude of the transmission signal in order to reduce the noise introduced into the network, and, as a consequence, the\npower consumption, increasing data transmission quality of network in terms of Quality of Service (QoS). This solution has been\nimplemented into embedded systems based on the ADD1010, a power line System on Chip (SoC), and tested through a real scenario\nrealized in laboratory....
Images get degraded because of unbalanced enlightenment including\ntext-smearing, ink-bleeding, degradation of ink over time, manuscript characters\nfrom background coming out and blended with the characters of the\nmain side etc. So, degraded-document enhancement is a challenging issue. In\nrecent years, several binarization approaches are proposed to enhance these\nimages. These techniques have focused on finding a suitable global threshold\nvalue or a local threshold value for every region to eliminate the degradations.\nA hybrid approach can be a good solution to deal with all these matters together.\nThis paper proposes a hybrid approach of binarization for degraded\ndocuments to produce better quality result........................
We introduce an improved image transmission scheme over wireless channels with flat Rayleigh fading. The proposed scheme\r\njointly optimizes bit power and modulation level to maximize the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) of the reconstructed image\r\nand hence improves the perceptual quality of the received image. In this optimization process, the significance of bits with regard to\r\nthe overall quality of the image is exploited. The optimality of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated using the Lagrange method\r\nand verified through an iterative offline exhaustive search algorithm. For practical implementation, a look-up table is used at the\r\ntransmitter for assigning the bit power and modulation level to each bit stream according to the received signal-to-noise ratio\r\n(SNR) observed at the receiver. The proposed scheme has low complexity since the look-up table is computed offline, only once,\r\nand used for any image which makes it suitable for devices with limited processing capability. Analytical and simulation results\r\nshow that the proposed scheme with jointly optimized bit power and variable modulation level provides an improvement in PSNR\r\nof about 10 to 20 dB over fixed power fixed modulation (16-QAM). A further reduction in complexity is achieved by using the\r\naverage signal-to-noise ratio rather than the instantaneous SNR in selecting the system parameters....
Biological nanonetworks have been envisaged to be the most appropriate alternatives
to classical electromagnetic nanonetworks for applications in biological environments. Due to the
diffusional method of the message exchange process, transfer data rates are not proportional to their
electromagnetic counterparts. In addition, the molecular channel has memory affecting the reception
of a message, as the molecules from previously transmitted messages remain in the channel, affecting
the number of information molecules that are required from a node to perceive a transmitted message.
As a result, the ability of a node to receive a message is directly connected to the transmission rate
from the transmitter. In this work, a learning automaton approach has been followed as a way to
provide the receiver nodes with an algorithm that could firstly enhance their reception capability
and secondly boost the performance of the transfer data rate between the biological communication
parties. To this end, a complete set of simulation scenarios has been devised, simulating different
distances between nodes and various input signal distributions. Most of the operational parameters,
such as the speed of convergence for different numbers of ascension and descension steps and the
number of information molecules per message, have been tested pertaining to the performance
characteristics of the biological nanonetwork. The applied analysis revealed that the proposed
protocol manages to adapt to the communication channel changes, such as the number of remaining
information molecules, and can be successfully employed at nanoscale dimensions as a tool for
pursuing an increased transfer data rate, even with time-variant channel characteristics....
IEEE 802.15.4 is an important standard for Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LRWPAN). The IEEE 802.15.4 presents a\nflexible MAC protocol that provides good efficiency for data transmission by adapting its parameters according to characteristics\nof different applications. In this research work, some restrictions of this standard are explained and an improvement of traffic\nefficiency by optimizing MAC layer is proposed. Implementation details for several blocks of communication system are carefully\nmodeled.The protocol implementation is done usingVHDL language.Theanalysis gives a full understanding of the behavior of the\nMAC protocol with regard to backoff delay, data loss probability, congestion probability, slot effectiveness, and traffic distribution\nfor terminals. Two ideas are proposed and tested to improve efficiency of CSMA/CA mechanism for IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Layer.\nPrimarily, we dynamically adjust the backoff exponent (BE) according to queue level of each node. Secondly, we vary the number of\nconsecutive clear channel assessment (CCA) for packet transmission.We demonstrate also that slot compensation provided by the\nenhanced MAC protocol can greatly avoid unused slots. The results show the significant improvements expected by our approach\namong the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC standards. Synthesis results show also hardware performances of our proposed architecture....
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