Current Issue : July - September
Volume : 2021
Issue Number : 3
Articles : 6 Articles
Purpose. To analyze the anatomical and functional outcomes after autologous lens capsule transplantation in patients with persistent
macular hole. Methods. +is is a retrospective observational study of five eyes of five patients treated with vitrectomy and autologous
lens capsular flap transplantation. Complete ophthalmic examination was performed preoperatively and seven days and 1, 3, 6, 12,
and 18 months after surgery. Results. Successful macular hole closure was achieved in all patients. +e mean minimum macular hole
diameter before the surgery was 666.8 μm, and the mean basal diameter was 1086.4 μm. +e mean visual acuity before lens capsular
flap transplantation was 20/200, while after surgery, it was 20/125. Conclusions. Autologous lens capsular flap transplantation is a
potential alternative treatment for patients with large persistent macular holes after other operative techniques have failed....
Background. Liver transplantation has many complications. Because of receiving immunosuppressive regimens, infectious
complications in these patients may have fatal results. Aspergillosis in solid organ recipients is one of the most common fungal
infections that usually occur 1 month after transplantation. Aspergillus infection mainly involves the lungs. Although the central
nervous system may get involved due to hematogenous spreading from lungs, isolated central nervous system involvement is
rarely reported. Case Presentation. The patient was an 8-year-old boy, with a case of Wilson disease, who underwent liver
transplantation due to acute fulminant hepatic failure. Four days after the surgery, he was affected by fever, agitation, loss of
consciousness, hemiparesis, and focal seizure. Brain MRI showed abscess formation, whereas chest X-ray was normal.
Intravenous antibiotics were initiated but the patient’s condition was not improving; therefore, surgical drainage of the abscess
was performed. The pathological investigation was compatible with aspergillosis. Antifungal therapy with voriconazole was
administrated. His symptoms were resolved but unfortunately, brain lesions caused persistent vegetative state. Discussion.
Aspergillus is a ubiquitous organism that mainly occurs in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillosis could be prevented by
environmental modification such as installing high-efficiency particulate air filters. Chemoprevention with triazoles,
echinocandins, and polyenes is also effective. Voriconazole is the drug of choice for aspergillosis treatment. Although
voriconazole is a highly effective antifungal drug, cerebral aspergillosis is often fatal....
Transplantation is essential and crucial for individuals suffering from end-stage organ failure diseases. However, there are still many
challenges regarding these procedures, such as high rates of organ rejection, shortage of organ donors, and long waiting lines. Thus,
investments and efforts to develop laboratory-grown organs have increased over the past years, and with the recent progress in
regenerative medicine, growing organs in vitro might be a reality within the next decades. One of the many different strategies
to address this issue relies on organoid technology, a miniaturized and simplified version of an organ. Here, we address recent
progress on organoid research, focusing on transplantation of intestine, retina, kidney, liver, pancreas, brain, lung, and heart
organoids. Also, we discuss the main outcomes after organoid transplantation, common challenges faced by these promising
regenerative medicine approaches, and future perspectives on the field....
Background. It was reported that systemic immune inflammation index (SII) was related to poor prognosis in a variety of cancers.
We aimed to investigate the ability of the prognostic predictors of SII in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA)
undergoing liver transplantation (LT). Methods. The 28 iCCA patients who underwent LT at our hospital between 2013 and
2018 were reviewed. Kaplan–Meier survival curves and Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate the prognostic significance
of SII. Patients were divided into the high and low SII groups according to the cut-off value. Results. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS
rates were significantly lower in the high SII group (85.7%, 28.6%, and 21.4%, respectively) than in the low SII group (92.9%,
71.4%, and 57.2%, respectively; P = 0:009). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year RFS rates were, respectively, 57.1%, 32.7%, and 21.8% in the
high SII group and 85.7%, 61.1%, and 61.1% in the low SII group (P = 0:021). SII ≥ 447:48 × 109/L (HR 0.273, 95% CI 0.082–
0.908; P = 0:034) was an independent prognostic factor for OS. Conclusions. Our results showed that SII can be used to predict
the survival of patients with iCCA who undergo LT....
Background: Due to a critical shortage of available kidney grafts, most patients with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney
Disease (CKD5) require bridging dialysis support. It remains unclear whether treatment by different dialysis
modalities changes the selection and/or preparation of a potential transplant candidate. Therefore, we assessed
whether the likelihood of receiving kidney transplant (both living or deceased kidney donors) differs between
haemodialysis (HD) and online haemodiafiltration (HDF) in patients with CKD5D.
Methods: Individual participant data from four randomised controlled trials comparing online HDF with HD were
used. Information on kidney transplant was obtained during follow-up. The likelihood of receiving a kidney
transplant was compared between HD and HDF, and evaluated across different subgroups: age, sex, diabetes,
history of cardiovascular disease, albumin, dialysis vintage, fistula, and level of convection volume standardized to
body surface area. Hazard ratios (HRs), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), comparing the effect
of online HDF versus HD on the likelihood of receiving a kidney transplant, were estimated using Cox proportional
hazards models with a random effect for study..................
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at a high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and approximately half of all deaths
among patients with CKD are a direct result of CVD. The premature cardiovascular disease extends from mild to moderate CKD
stages, and the severity of CVD and the risk of death increase with a decline in kidney function. Successful kidney transplantation
significantly decreases the risk of death relative to long-term dialysis treatment; nevertheless, the prevalence of CVD remains high
and is responsible for approximately 20-35% of mortality in renal transplant recipients. The prevalence of traditional and
nontraditional risk factors for CVD is higher in patients with CKD and transplant recipients compared with the general
population; however, it can only partly explain the highly increased cardiovascular burden in CKD patients. Nontraditional risk
factors, unique to CKD patients, include proteinuria, disturbed calcium, and phosphate metabolism, anemia, fluid overload, and
accumulation of uremic toxins. This accumulation of uremic toxins is associated with systemic alterations including
inflammation and oxidative stress which are considered crucial in CKD progression and CKD-related CVD. Kidney
transplantation can mitigate the impact of some of these nontraditional factors, but they typically persist to some degree
following transplantation. Taking into consideration the scarcity of data on uremic waste products, oxidative stress, and their
relation to atherosclerosis in renal transplantation, in the review, we discussed the impact of uremic toxins on vascular
dysfunction in CKD patients and kidney transplant recipients. Special attention was paid to the role of native and transplanted
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